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What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans?

Abstract

The aims of this introductory article are to survey and critically evaluate the concepts and approaches that have been used to assess amino acid adequacy and to hypothesize about possible future directions of research. The issue in question is extensive, consequently this article will be limited to: 1) definitions of amino acid requirements; 2) available techniques to assess amino acid requirements; 3) actual recommendations for healthy adults; 4) factors influencing requirements; and 5) requirements in acute and chronic wasting diseases. Recommendations for amino acid intakes for healthy adults were proposed by the FAO/WHO expert committee in 2001. They have not yet been published. The major factors affecting amino acid requirements are the stage of development, reproductive state, environmental factors, digestibility of dietary proteins, genotype of the individual, and pathological conditions. Remarkably, there are no conclusive data relative to changes in requirements induced by infection, injury, trauma, and renal or liver failure. Future research using modern methods to evaluate requirements must thus receive a high priority. Wasting diseases are associated with deficiencies and imbalances of particular amino acids causing specific changes in requirements. Consequently, a new approach has been used to categorize amino acids as conditionally indispensable according to their functional and physiological properties. Kinetic measurements of plasma amino acids might help to estimate qualitative requirements. Measurement of tissue intracellular free amino acid deficiencies or excesses is another method to estimate qualitative requirements. Based on these measurements tentative values for conditionally indispensable amino acids during disease are given in the article.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute of Nutrition Science, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. p.fuerst@uni-bonn.de

    Source

    The Journal of nutrition 134:6 Suppl 2004 06 pg 1558S-1565S

    MeSH

    Acute Disease
    Amino Acids
    Amino Acids, Essential
    Chronic Disease
    Humans
    Nutritional Requirements
    Nutritional Status
    Wasting Syndrome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15173430

    Citation

    Fürst, Peter, and Peter Stehle. "What Are the Essential Elements Needed for the Determination of Amino Acid Requirements in Humans?" The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, no. 6 Suppl, 2004, 1558S-1565S.
    Fürst P, Stehle P. What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans? J Nutr. 2004;134(6 Suppl):1558S-1565S.
    Fürst, P., & Stehle, P. (2004). What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans? The Journal of Nutrition, 134(6 Suppl), 1558S-1565S. doi:10.1093/jn/134.6.1558S.
    Fürst P, Stehle P. What Are the Essential Elements Needed for the Determination of Amino Acid Requirements in Humans. J Nutr. 2004;134(6 Suppl):1558S-1565S. PubMed PMID: 15173430.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans? AU - Fürst,Peter, AU - Stehle,Peter, PY - 2004/6/3/pubmed PY - 2004/7/9/medline PY - 2004/6/3/entrez SP - 1558S EP - 1565S JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 134 IS - 6 Suppl N2 - The aims of this introductory article are to survey and critically evaluate the concepts and approaches that have been used to assess amino acid adequacy and to hypothesize about possible future directions of research. The issue in question is extensive, consequently this article will be limited to: 1) definitions of amino acid requirements; 2) available techniques to assess amino acid requirements; 3) actual recommendations for healthy adults; 4) factors influencing requirements; and 5) requirements in acute and chronic wasting diseases. Recommendations for amino acid intakes for healthy adults were proposed by the FAO/WHO expert committee in 2001. They have not yet been published. The major factors affecting amino acid requirements are the stage of development, reproductive state, environmental factors, digestibility of dietary proteins, genotype of the individual, and pathological conditions. Remarkably, there are no conclusive data relative to changes in requirements induced by infection, injury, trauma, and renal or liver failure. Future research using modern methods to evaluate requirements must thus receive a high priority. Wasting diseases are associated with deficiencies and imbalances of particular amino acids causing specific changes in requirements. Consequently, a new approach has been used to categorize amino acids as conditionally indispensable according to their functional and physiological properties. Kinetic measurements of plasma amino acids might help to estimate qualitative requirements. Measurement of tissue intracellular free amino acid deficiencies or excesses is another method to estimate qualitative requirements. Based on these measurements tentative values for conditionally indispensable amino acids during disease are given in the article. SN - 0022-3166 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15173430/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/134.6.1558S DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -