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Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58(11):1485-91EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The energy density (ED) of the diet is considered an important determinant of total energy intake and thus energy balance and weight change. We aimed to compare relationships between ED and macronutrient content in individual food and beverage items as well as population diet in a typical Western country.

DESIGN

Nutrient data for 3673 food items and 247 beverage items came from the Australian Food and Nutrient database (AusNut). Food and beverage intake data came from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (a 24-h dietary recall survey in 13 858 people over the age of 2). Relationships between ED and macronutrient and water content were analysed by linear regression with 95% prediction bands.

RESULTS

For both individual food items and population food intake, there was a positive relationship between ED and percent energy as fat and negative relationships between ED and percent energy as carbohydrate and percent water by weight. In all cases, there was close agreement between the slopes of the regression lines between food items and dietary intake. There were no clear relationships between ED and macronutrient content for beverage items. Carbohydrate (mostly sucrose) contributed 91, 47, and 25% of total energy for sugar-based, fat-based, and alcohol-based beverages respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The relationship between ED and fat content of foods holds true across both population diets and individual food items available in the food supply in a typical Western country such as Australia. As high-fat diets are associated with a high BMI, population measures with an overall aim of reducing the ED of diets may be effective in mediating the growing problem of overweight and obesity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia. tcrowe@deakin.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15173855

Citation

Crowe, T C., et al. "Energy Density of Foods and Beverages in the Australian Food Supply: Influence of Macronutrients and Comparison to Dietary Intake." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 11, 2004, pp. 1485-91.
Crowe TC, Fontaine HL, Gibbons CJ, et al. Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(11):1485-91.
Crowe, T. C., Fontaine, H. L., Gibbons, C. J., Cameron-Smith, D., & Swinburn, B. A. (2004). Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(11), pp. 1485-91.
Crowe TC, et al. Energy Density of Foods and Beverages in the Australian Food Supply: Influence of Macronutrients and Comparison to Dietary Intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(11):1485-91. PubMed PMID: 15173855.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake. AU - Crowe,T C, AU - Fontaine,Ha La, AU - Gibbons,C J, AU - Cameron-Smith,D, AU - Swinburn,B A, PY - 2004/6/3/pubmed PY - 2005/2/11/medline PY - 2004/6/3/entrez SP - 1485 EP - 91 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 58 IS - 11 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The energy density (ED) of the diet is considered an important determinant of total energy intake and thus energy balance and weight change. We aimed to compare relationships between ED and macronutrient content in individual food and beverage items as well as population diet in a typical Western country. DESIGN: Nutrient data for 3673 food items and 247 beverage items came from the Australian Food and Nutrient database (AusNut). Food and beverage intake data came from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (a 24-h dietary recall survey in 13 858 people over the age of 2). Relationships between ED and macronutrient and water content were analysed by linear regression with 95% prediction bands. RESULTS: For both individual food items and population food intake, there was a positive relationship between ED and percent energy as fat and negative relationships between ED and percent energy as carbohydrate and percent water by weight. In all cases, there was close agreement between the slopes of the regression lines between food items and dietary intake. There were no clear relationships between ED and macronutrient content for beverage items. Carbohydrate (mostly sucrose) contributed 91, 47, and 25% of total energy for sugar-based, fat-based, and alcohol-based beverages respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between ED and fat content of foods holds true across both population diets and individual food items available in the food supply in a typical Western country such as Australia. As high-fat diets are associated with a high BMI, population measures with an overall aim of reducing the ED of diets may be effective in mediating the growing problem of overweight and obesity. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15173855/Energy_density_of_foods_and_beverages_in_the_Australian_food_supply:_influence_of_macronutrients_and_comparison_to_dietary_intake_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601994 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -