Vitamin D intake in the United States.J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jun; 104(6):980-3.JA
Mean intake of vitamin D in the United States was estimated from food and food plus supplements and compared with recommended intake levels. US men, nonpregnant and nonlactating women, and nonbreastfeeding children aged 1 year and older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) or the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996, 1998 (CSFII 1994-1996, 1998) were included in the estimates. Intake of vitamin D from food sources and dietary supplements was not meeting recommended levels. The lowest intakes of vitamin D from food were reported by female teenagers and female adults. The highest intakes of vitamin D from food sources were reported by male teenagers. Dairy products were the primary sources of both vitamin D and calcium. Additional food fortification as well as dietary and supplement guidance are needed for the general population.