Multi-generation cadmium acclimation and tolerance in Daphnia magna Straus.Environ Pollut. 2004 Aug; 130(3):309-16.EP
The cladoceran Daphnia magna was acclimated for seven generations to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 250 microg/l Cd (corresponding to a free ion activity of 4.60 nM Cd2+). Acute and chronic cadmium tolerance as well as cadmium accumulation were monitored as a function of acclimation time. After two to three generations of acclimation to concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.11 nM Cd2+ increases in acute tolerance were maximal (factor 7.2) and significant. Acclimation for seven generations to the same acclimation concentrations did result in an increased chronic cadmium tolerance (21 days EC50 values increased). Organisms acclimated to 1.93 nM Cd2+ were equally or more sensitive than non-acclimated daphnids in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Cadmium contents in D. magna increased significantly as a function of the acclimation concentration. Maximum body burdens of 236+/-30 microg Cd/g dry weight were measured in organisms exposed to 4.60 nM Cd2+, but detoxification mechanisms were only successful up to 82+/-20 microg Cd/g dry weight as this concentration did not cause major decreases in survival and reproduction in chronic toxicity tests. As the potential positive effect of acclimation on cadmium tolerance disappeared with successive acclimation generations and increasing acclimation concentrations, it is concluded that multi-generation acclimation studies are important for the evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental toxicants.