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Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Jun; 61(6):618-27.AG

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Autism is considered to have a genetic basis, although exposure to certain stimuli in the prenatal period has been implicated to be causal in some cases. Some investigations have shown an association with obstetric complications but findings have been inconsistent owing to differences in sampling and methods.

OBJECTIVE

To examine the association of obstetric factors with autism spectrum disorders for a cohort of children, using obstetric data contained in a statutory database collected at the time of birth.

DESIGN

Subjects born in Western Australia between 1980 and 1995 and diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder by 1999 were included as cases (n = 465). Siblings of the cases (n = 481) and a random population-based control group (n = 1313) were compared with the cases on obstetric information contained in the Maternal and Child Health Research Database of Western Australia.

RESULTS

Compared with control subjects, cases had significantly older parents and were more likely to be firstborn. Case mothers had greater frequencies of threatened abortion, epidural caudal anesthesia use, labor induction, and a labor duration of less than 1 hour. Cases were more likely to have experienced fetal distress, been delivered by an elective or emergency cesarean section, and had an Apgar score of less than 6 at 1 minute. Cases with a diagnosis of autism had more complications than those with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified or Asperger syndrome. Nonaffected siblings of cases were more similar to cases than control subjects in their profile of complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Autism is unlikely to be caused by a single obstetric factor. The increased prevalence of obstetric complications among autism cases is most likely due to the underlying genetic factors or an interaction of these factors with the environment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Schools of Population Health and Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia. emma.glasson@health.wa.gov.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15184241

Citation

Glasson, Emma J., et al. "Perinatal Factors and the Development of Autism: a Population Study." Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 6, 2004, pp. 618-27.
Glasson EJ, Bower C, Petterson B, et al. Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(6):618-27.
Glasson, E. J., Bower, C., Petterson, B., de Klerk, N., Chaney, G., & Hallmayer, J. F. (2004). Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(6), 618-27.
Glasson EJ, et al. Perinatal Factors and the Development of Autism: a Population Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(6):618-27. PubMed PMID: 15184241.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study. AU - Glasson,Emma J, AU - Bower,Carol, AU - Petterson,Beverly, AU - de Klerk,Nick, AU - Chaney,Gervase, AU - Hallmayer,Joachim F, PY - 2004/6/9/pubmed PY - 2004/6/25/medline PY - 2004/6/9/entrez SP - 618 EP - 27 JF - Archives of general psychiatry JO - Arch. Gen. Psychiatry VL - 61 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Autism is considered to have a genetic basis, although exposure to certain stimuli in the prenatal period has been implicated to be causal in some cases. Some investigations have shown an association with obstetric complications but findings have been inconsistent owing to differences in sampling and methods. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of obstetric factors with autism spectrum disorders for a cohort of children, using obstetric data contained in a statutory database collected at the time of birth. DESIGN: Subjects born in Western Australia between 1980 and 1995 and diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder by 1999 were included as cases (n = 465). Siblings of the cases (n = 481) and a random population-based control group (n = 1313) were compared with the cases on obstetric information contained in the Maternal and Child Health Research Database of Western Australia. RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, cases had significantly older parents and were more likely to be firstborn. Case mothers had greater frequencies of threatened abortion, epidural caudal anesthesia use, labor induction, and a labor duration of less than 1 hour. Cases were more likely to have experienced fetal distress, been delivered by an elective or emergency cesarean section, and had an Apgar score of less than 6 at 1 minute. Cases with a diagnosis of autism had more complications than those with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified or Asperger syndrome. Nonaffected siblings of cases were more similar to cases than control subjects in their profile of complications. CONCLUSIONS: Autism is unlikely to be caused by a single obstetric factor. The increased prevalence of obstetric complications among autism cases is most likely due to the underlying genetic factors or an interaction of these factors with the environment. SN - 0003-990X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15184241/Perinatal_factors_and_the_development_of_autism:_a_population_study_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=15184241.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -