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Toxoplasmosis.
Lancet. 2004 Jun 12; 363(9425):1965-76.Lct

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world's population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or by eating undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts. Primary infection is usually subclinical but in some patients cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present. Infection acquired during pregnancy may cause severe damage to the fetus. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation of latent disease can cause life-threatening encephalitis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be established by direct detection of the parasite or by serological techniques. The most commonly used therapeutic regimen, and probably the most effective, is the combination of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid. This Seminar provides an overview and update on management of patients with acute infection, pregnant women who acquire infection during gestation, fetuses or infants who are congenitally infected, those with ocular disease, and immunocompromised individuals. Controversy about the effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention in pregnant women is discussed. Important topics of current and future research are presented.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15194258

Citation

Montoya, J G., and O Liesenfeld. "Toxoplasmosis." Lancet (London, England), vol. 363, no. 9425, 2004, pp. 1965-76.
Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004;363(9425):1965-76.
Montoya, J. G., & Liesenfeld, O. (2004). Toxoplasmosis. Lancet (London, England), 363(9425), 1965-76.
Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004 Jun 12;363(9425):1965-76. PubMed PMID: 15194258.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxoplasmosis. AU - Montoya,J G, AU - Liesenfeld,O, PY - 2004/6/15/pubmed PY - 2004/6/25/medline PY - 2004/6/15/entrez SP - 1965 EP - 76 JF - Lancet (London, England) JO - Lancet VL - 363 IS - 9425 N2 - Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world's population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or by eating undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts. Primary infection is usually subclinical but in some patients cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present. Infection acquired during pregnancy may cause severe damage to the fetus. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation of latent disease can cause life-threatening encephalitis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be established by direct detection of the parasite or by serological techniques. The most commonly used therapeutic regimen, and probably the most effective, is the combination of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid. This Seminar provides an overview and update on management of patients with acute infection, pregnant women who acquire infection during gestation, fetuses or infants who are congenitally infected, those with ocular disease, and immunocompromised individuals. Controversy about the effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention in pregnant women is discussed. Important topics of current and future research are presented. SN - 1474-547X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15194258/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S014067360416412X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -