Glycated albumin activates PAI-1 transcription through Smad DNA binding sites in mesangial cells.Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Oct; 287(4):F665-72.AJ
Amadori-modified glycated albumin stimulates extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) expression in cultured mesangial cells. Smad proteins transduce the TGF-beta-mediated signal, and Smad-binding CAGA sequences are present in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter. This study examined whether glycated albumin induces PAI-1 transcription in human mesangial cells (HMC) through Smad-binding sites in the PAI-1 promoter. Quiescent HMC were exposed to 200 microg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) or glycated BSA (Gly-BSA) for 12-72 h. At 24 h, Gly-BSA stimulated TGF-beta1 and PAI-1 mRNA expression in HMC to 1.8 and 3.2 times that in the BSA-treated control cells. Gly-BSA also activated the PAI-1 promoter luciferase activity 2.3-fold. Gly-BSA-treated cells enhanced Smad2 and Smad3 protein levels 2.5 times the control levels in the nuclei. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay performed using CAGA sequences as a probe showed that Gly-BSA increased DNA/protein complexes. When nuclear extracts were preincubated with 100-fold molar excess of unlabeled CAGA oligonucleotide, the formation of complex was prevented. The DNA-binding protein was shown to be Smad3 by antibody supershift. Transfection of phosphorothioate CAGA oligonucleotide, a CAGA antisense analog, inhibited Gly-BSA-induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. Cotransfection of phosphorothioate CAGA oligonucleotides with PAI-1 reporter vector also blocked Gly-BSA-induced PAI-1 promoter luciferase activity. These results indicate that Gly-BSA increases DNA binding activity of Smad3 and that it stimulates PAI-1 transcription through Smad-binding CAGA sequences in the PAI-1 promoter in HMC. Thus progression of diabetic nephropathy may be promoted by PAI-1 upregulation mediated by the glycated albumin-induced Smad/DNA interactions.