Long-term compliance and changes in plasma lipids, plant sterols and carotenoids in children and parents with FH consuming plant sterol ester-enriched spread.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 58(12):1612-20.EJ
To study the compliance and changes in plasma lipids, plant sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in children and parents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) consuming a plant sterol ester-enriched (PSE) spread.
A 26-week open-label follow-up of children who had previously been studied in a controlled cross-over design. The parents were also included in the open-label arm of the study.
Outpatient clinic for treatment of hyperlipidemia.
A total of 37 children (7-13 y) and 20 parents (32-51 y) diagnosed with 'definite' or 'possible' heterozygous FH. In all, 19 of the parents, but no children, used statins. All were patients at the Lipid Clinic, National Hospital in Oslo.
Subjects were recommended to eat 20 g/day of PSE spread as part of their lipid-lowering diet.
The mean intake of PSE spread was 13.7 and 16.5 g/days in the children and parents, respectively, corresponding to 1.2 and 1.5 g of plant sterols. Plasma total cholesterol decreased by 9.1% in both children (P<0.001) and parents (P=0.002). The corresponding decreases in LDL cholesterol were 11.4% (P<0.001) and 11.0% (P=0.012). Increases in serum lathosterol, campesterol and sitosterol, adjusted for total cholesterol, were observed in the children (31, 96, 48%, respectively, P<0.001) at the end of the controlled cross-over period. In the parents, serum campesterol and sitosterol, adjusted for total cholesterol, increased by 92 and 39%, respectively (P< 0.001). Lipid-adjusted serum alpha- and beta-carotene decreased by 17.4% (P=0.008) and 10.9% (P=0.018), respectively, in the children at the end of the controlled PSE period, but increased again during the follow-up. In the parents, serum alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations were unchanged, while serum lutein and lycopene decreased by 7.3% (P=0.037) and 14.6% (P=0.044), respectively.
Sustained efficacy of cholesterol reduction and long-term compliance of PSE intake were demonstrated in this study.