Soluble adhesion molecules in acute ischemic stroke.Clin Invest Med. 2004 Apr; 27(2):86-92.CI
Inflammatory adhesion molecules play a key role in the development of ischemic lesions. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules are reported in stroke patients, but data are still controversial. Our aim was to explore the potential association of plasma levels of soluble (s) intercellular and vascular cellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1), sE-selectin and sL-selectin with acute ischemic stroke.
At our university hospital in Zagreb, Croatia, we prospectively enrolled 67 subjects with acute ischemic stroke, as well as 76 consecutive healthy individuals as controls who were visiting the centre for reasons unrelated to stroke. Serum concentrations of the molecules of interest were determined by means of quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay.
Mean levels of sICAM-1 (p < 0.001), sVCAM-1 (p < 0.034) and sE-selectin (p < 0.002) were higher in patients than in controls, whereas sL-selectin was lower in patients (p = 0.043). In patients, levels of soluble adhesion molecules were independent of age and sex except for sL-selectin, which was inversely correlated with age (r = -0.260, p = 0.034) and higher in women (p = 0.006) and diabetics (n = 14; p = 0.004). Serum levels did not differ significantly with respect to carotid atherosclerotic disease, smoking status, hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. As well as correlating with each other, concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules in patients correlated with traditional biochemical markers of inflammation: total leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein level. Concentrations of sICAM-1 and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and ESR were identified as significant independent predictors/indicators of acute ischemic stroke.
Acute ischemic stroke is associated with elevated plasma levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin, independent of age, sex and other recognized risk factors for stroke. Decreased levels of sL-selectin are associated with acute stroke. The observed changes in serum concentrations of adhesion molecules indicate inflammatory process occurring during acute cerebral ischemia.