Transforming growth factor Beta1 induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 in articular chondrocytes is mediated by reactive oxygen species.Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Jul 15; 37(2):196-207.FR
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) stimulates cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis but, in excess, evokes synovial inflammation, hyperplasia, and osteophyte formation in arthritic joints. TGF-beta1 induces tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP-3), an inhibitor of cartilage-damaging matrix metalloproteianases and aggrecanases. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TIMP-3 induction by TGF-beta1. In primary human and bovine chondrocytes, ROS scavenger and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited TGF-beta1-induced TIMP-3 mRNA and protein increases. Ebselen and ascorbate also reduced this induction. TGF-beta1 time-dependently induced ROS production that was suppressed by NAC. Hydrogen peroxide, a ROS, induced TIMP-3 RNA. The TIMP-3 increase induced by TGF-beta1 was partly Smad2-dependent. TGF-beta1-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC. Reduced glutathione and L-cysteine also blocked Smad2 and TIMP-3 induction by TGF-beta1, whereas a nonthiol, N-acetylalanine, did not. Smad2 was not activated by H2O2. Smad2 phosphorylation was independent, and TIMP-3 expression was dependent, on new protein synthesis. TGF-beta-stimulated ERK and JNK phosphorylation was also inhibited by NAC. However, inhibitory actions of NAC were not mediated by ERK activation. Thus, ROS mediate TGF-beta1-induced TIMP-3 gene expression. Blocking TGF-beta1-induced gene expression by modulating cellular redox status with thiols can be potentially beneficial for treating arthritic and other disorders caused by excessive TGF-beta1.