Effects of opium addiction on some serum factors in addicts with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.Addict Biol 2004; 9(1):53-8AB
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of opium on biochemical parameters in addicts with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Twenty-three males and 26 females between 35 and 65 years of age, with NIDDM, addicted to opium, were selected as the case group. Twenty-three males and 26 females with NIDDM and no opium addiction served as controls. Fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TGs), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), iron (Fe(2+)), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid and urea were measured in the serum of the two groups. Serum protein electrophoresis was also carried out. Compared to the control group, in addicted males with NIDDM, HbA1c, K(+) and Fe(2+) were higher, and serum total protein, ALT and HDL-c were lower. No significant difference was observed between other factors. Albumin was lower in addicts, but no significant difference was observed between the albumin/globulin ratios. In addicted females with NIDDM, serum total protein, TIBC, ALT and AST were lower compared to non-addicts. Cholesterol tends to be lower in diabetic addicted males, HbA1c in addicted females and uric acid in addicted males was higher compared to non-addicted diabetics. Their differences, however, were not significant. According to our results, smoking opium increases serum glucose and decreases HDL-c, and thus adds to metabolic disorders in NIDDM patients. It also increases potassium and Fe(2) in males and decreases TIBC in females, and could therefore potentially interfere with water and iron metabolism.