Comparative PM10-PM2.5 source contribution study at rural, urban and industrial sites during PM episodes in Eastern Spain.Sci Total Environ. 2004 Jul 26; 328(1-3):95-113.ST
In this study a set of 340 PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected throughout 16 months at rural, an urban kerbside and an industrial background site (affected by the emissions from the ceramic manufacture and other activities) were interpreted. On the regional scale, the main PM10 sources were mineral dust (mainly Al2O3, Fe, Ti, Sr, CaCO3, Mg, Mn and K), emissions derived from power generation (SO4=, V, Zn and Ni), vehicle exhausts (organic and elemental carbon, NO3- and trace elements) and marine aerosol (Na, Cl and Mg). The latter was not identified in PM2.5. At the industrial site, additional PM10 sources were identified (tile covering in the ceramic production, petrochemical emissions and bio-mass burning from a large orange tree cultivation area). The contribution of each PM source to PM10 and PM2.5 levels experiences significant variations depending on the type of PM episode (Local-urban mainly in autumn-winter, regional mainly in summer, African or Atlantic episode), which are discussed in this study. The results show that it would be very difficult to meet the EU limit values for PM10 established for 2010. The annual mean PM levels are 22.0 microg PM10/m3 at the rural and 49.5 microg PM10/m3 and 33.9 microg PM2.5/m3 at the urban site. The natural contribution in this region, estimated at 6 microg/m3 of natural mineral dust (resulting from the African events and natural resuspension) and 2 microg/m3 of marine aerosol, accounts for 40% of the 2010 EU annual limit value (20 microg PM10/m3). Mineral dust concentrations at the urban and industrial sites are higher than those at the rural site because of the urban road dust and the ceramic-production contributions, respectively. At the urban site, the vehicle exhaust contribution (17 microg/m3) alone is very close to the 2010 EU PM10 limit value. At the rural site, the African dust is the main contributor to PM10 levels during the highest daily mean PM10 events (100th-97th percentile range). At the urban site, the vehicle exhaust product is the main contributor to PM10 and PM2.5 levels during the highest daily mean PM events (100th-85th percentile range). Mineral dust concentrations during African dust events accounts for 20-30 microg/m3 in PM10 and 10-15 microg/m3 in PM2.5. During non-African dust events, mineral dust derived from anthropogenic activities (e.g. urban road dust) is also a significant contributor to PM10, but not to PM2.5.