Necrotising ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis as indicators of HIV-infection.SADJ. 2004 Apr; 59(3):105-8.SADJ
Necrotising ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) are well-documented oral manifestations of HIV infection/AIDS. However, no information is available regarding the predictive value of NUG in the diagnosis of HIV-infection in South Africa.
The purpose of this study was to determine a possible correlation between NUG/NUP and HIV infection in the as yet undiagnosed patients.
Eighty-six systemically asymptomatic patients were diagnosed with NUG/NUP. All patients were treated with 400 mg of metronidazole and 500 mg paracetamol, three times a day for five days. Mechanical debridement under local anesthesia was performed five days after the initial consultation. The possible involvement of HIV-infection was explained and patients were advised to have a blood test taken.
Fifty-six patients consented and received pre- and post-test counselling. Of the fifty-six patients, thirty-nine were found to be HIV positive with CD+ T cell counts ranging between 9 and 1,205 cells/mm3. There was a statistically significant correlation between CD4+ T cells below 500 cells/mm3 (p = 0.000) as well as with CD4+ T cells below 200 cells/mm3 (p = 0.001) and NUP/NUG.
From these results it is concluded that in the GaRankuwa and surrounding areas, NUG/NUP in otherwise systemically healthy individuals is strongly correlated with HIV infection, with a predictive value of 69.6 per cent (p = 0.01). It is recommended that patients presenting with these conditions be encouraged to undergo testing to establish their HIV status for appropriate referrals and management.