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The diagnosis and management of snakebite in dogs--a southern African perspective.
J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2004 Mar; 75(1):7-13.JS

Abstract

Cases of snakebite envenomation are frequently presented to veterinary practitioners in southern Africa. Despite this, no published guidelines exist on how this medical emergency should be managed. Southern African snake venoms can be classified into 3 main types based on the main mechanism of venom action and clinical presentation. A polyvalent antivenom is manufactured in South Africa and contains antibodies against the most important southern African snake venoms. The cytotoxic venoms are represented mainly by the puff-adder (Bitis arietans), Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossabica), black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) (in the Western Cape and Namibia) and the stiletto snake (Atractaspis bibronii). These venoms may cause dramatic local swelling, high morbidity and low mortality and infrequently require the use of antivenom for survival (the only cytotoxic venoms used to prepare the antivenom are the puff-adder and Mozambique spitting cobra). The neurotoxic venoms (represented chiefly by the non-spitting cobras and mambas) cause high mortality due to rapid onset of paresis and require antivenom and mechanical ventilatory support which is life-saving. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and the vine snake (coagulopathic venom) rarely bite humans but dogs may be bitten more frequently. These venoms cause a consumption coagulopathy and successful treatment of boomslang bites requires the use of snake species-specific monovalent antivenom. There is no antivenom available for treating vine snake (Thelotornis capensis), berg adder (Bitis atropos), night adder (Causus spp.), stiletto snake and other lesser adder bites. There are some important differences between the way snakebites are managed in humans and dogs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa. aleisew@op.up.ac.zaNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15214688

Citation

Leisewitz, A L., et al. "The Diagnosis and Management of Snakebite in Dogs--a Southern African Perspective." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, vol. 75, no. 1, 2004, pp. 7-13.
Leisewitz AL, Blaylock RS, Kettner F, et al. The diagnosis and management of snakebite in dogs--a southern African perspective. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2004;75(1):7-13.
Leisewitz, A. L., Blaylock, R. S., Kettner, F., Goodhead, A., Goddard, A., & Schoeman, J. P. (2004). The diagnosis and management of snakebite in dogs--a southern African perspective. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 75(1), 7-13.
Leisewitz AL, et al. The Diagnosis and Management of Snakebite in Dogs--a Southern African Perspective. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2004;75(1):7-13. PubMed PMID: 15214688.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The diagnosis and management of snakebite in dogs--a southern African perspective. AU - Leisewitz,A L, AU - Blaylock,R S, AU - Kettner,F, AU - Goodhead,A, AU - Goddard,A, AU - Schoeman,J P, PY - 2004/6/25/pubmed PY - 2004/9/28/medline PY - 2004/6/25/entrez SP - 7 EP - 13 JF - Journal of the South African Veterinary Association JO - J S Afr Vet Assoc VL - 75 IS - 1 N2 - Cases of snakebite envenomation are frequently presented to veterinary practitioners in southern Africa. Despite this, no published guidelines exist on how this medical emergency should be managed. Southern African snake venoms can be classified into 3 main types based on the main mechanism of venom action and clinical presentation. A polyvalent antivenom is manufactured in South Africa and contains antibodies against the most important southern African snake venoms. The cytotoxic venoms are represented mainly by the puff-adder (Bitis arietans), Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossabica), black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) (in the Western Cape and Namibia) and the stiletto snake (Atractaspis bibronii). These venoms may cause dramatic local swelling, high morbidity and low mortality and infrequently require the use of antivenom for survival (the only cytotoxic venoms used to prepare the antivenom are the puff-adder and Mozambique spitting cobra). The neurotoxic venoms (represented chiefly by the non-spitting cobras and mambas) cause high mortality due to rapid onset of paresis and require antivenom and mechanical ventilatory support which is life-saving. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and the vine snake (coagulopathic venom) rarely bite humans but dogs may be bitten more frequently. These venoms cause a consumption coagulopathy and successful treatment of boomslang bites requires the use of snake species-specific monovalent antivenom. There is no antivenom available for treating vine snake (Thelotornis capensis), berg adder (Bitis atropos), night adder (Causus spp.), stiletto snake and other lesser adder bites. There are some important differences between the way snakebites are managed in humans and dogs. SN - 1019-9128 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15214688/The_diagnosis_and_management_of_snakebite_in_dogs__a_southern_African_perspective_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -