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The evolution of host plant manipulation by insects: molecular and ecological evidence from gall-forming aphids on Pistacia.
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004 Aug; 32(2):504-11.MP

Abstract

One of the most striking characteristics of gall-forming insects is the variability in gall position, morphology, and complexity. Our knowledge of the driving forces behind the evolutionary divergence of gall types is limited. Natural enemies, competition, and behavioral constraints might be involved. We present a cladogram, based on sequences of COI and COII (1952bp), of mitochondrial DNA for the evolution of 14 species of gall-forming aphids (Fordinae). These insects induce five gall types with remarkable morphological variation on Pistacia spp. hosts. The parsimony cladogram divides the Fordinae into three lineages, Fordini and Baizongiini, and a third (new) sister group including the previously Fordini member, Smynthurodes betae (West). We then use ecological data to trace and explain the evolution of gall morphology. The aphids seem to have evolved gradually towards better ability to manipulate their host plant, induce stronger sinks, and gain higher reproductive success. We suggest that the ancestral gall type was a simple, open, "pea"-sized gall located on the leaflet midvein. Some Fordini and S. betae evolved a two-gall life cycle, inducing a new gall type on the leaflet margin. The Baizongiini improved the manipulation of their host by inducing larger galls near the midvein, with stronger sinks supporting thousands of aphids. Similar gall types are induced at similar sites on different Pistacia hosts suggesting control of the aphids on gall morphology and frequent host shifts. Thus, even extreme specialization (specific gall and host) is flexible.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, University of Haifa-Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel. minbar@research.haifa.ac.ilNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15223033

Citation

Inbar, M, et al. "The Evolution of Host Plant Manipulation By Insects: Molecular and Ecological Evidence From Gall-forming Aphids On Pistacia." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 32, no. 2, 2004, pp. 504-11.
Inbar M, Wink M, Wool D. The evolution of host plant manipulation by insects: molecular and ecological evidence from gall-forming aphids on Pistacia. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;32(2):504-11.
Inbar, M., Wink, M., & Wool, D. (2004). The evolution of host plant manipulation by insects: molecular and ecological evidence from gall-forming aphids on Pistacia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(2), 504-11.
Inbar M, Wink M, Wool D. The Evolution of Host Plant Manipulation By Insects: Molecular and Ecological Evidence From Gall-forming Aphids On Pistacia. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;32(2):504-11. PubMed PMID: 15223033.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The evolution of host plant manipulation by insects: molecular and ecological evidence from gall-forming aphids on Pistacia. AU - Inbar,M, AU - Wink,M, AU - Wool,D, PY - 2003/07/13/received PY - 2004/01/07/revised PY - 2004/6/30/pubmed PY - 2005/1/26/medline PY - 2004/6/30/entrez SP - 504 EP - 11 JF - Molecular phylogenetics and evolution JO - Mol Phylogenet Evol VL - 32 IS - 2 N2 - One of the most striking characteristics of gall-forming insects is the variability in gall position, morphology, and complexity. Our knowledge of the driving forces behind the evolutionary divergence of gall types is limited. Natural enemies, competition, and behavioral constraints might be involved. We present a cladogram, based on sequences of COI and COII (1952bp), of mitochondrial DNA for the evolution of 14 species of gall-forming aphids (Fordinae). These insects induce five gall types with remarkable morphological variation on Pistacia spp. hosts. The parsimony cladogram divides the Fordinae into three lineages, Fordini and Baizongiini, and a third (new) sister group including the previously Fordini member, Smynthurodes betae (West). We then use ecological data to trace and explain the evolution of gall morphology. The aphids seem to have evolved gradually towards better ability to manipulate their host plant, induce stronger sinks, and gain higher reproductive success. We suggest that the ancestral gall type was a simple, open, "pea"-sized gall located on the leaflet midvein. Some Fordini and S. betae evolved a two-gall life cycle, inducing a new gall type on the leaflet margin. The Baizongiini improved the manipulation of their host by inducing larger galls near the midvein, with stronger sinks supporting thousands of aphids. Similar gall types are induced at similar sites on different Pistacia hosts suggesting control of the aphids on gall morphology and frequent host shifts. Thus, even extreme specialization (specific gall and host) is flexible. SN - 1055-7903 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15223033/The_evolution_of_host_plant_manipulation_by_insects:_molecular_and_ecological_evidence_from_gall_forming_aphids_on_Pistacia_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1055790304000430 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -