[Concentration of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-8) in the cerebrospinal fluid and the course of bacterial meningitis].Przegl Lek. 2004; 61(2):78-85.PL
Bacterial meningitis is still associated with high mortality rate and severe neurological sequels. The aim of the study was to assess correlation between concentration of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and patient condition described on the basis of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), changes in the CSF (pleocytosis, protein and glucose level), mortality rate and occurrence of neurological complications. 42 patients with bacterial meningitis have been analysed. Control group consisted of 25 patients with viral meningitis and 23 patients without meningitis. In analysed group with bacterial meningitis the correlation between number of scores aggregated by patients in GCS and outcome has been observed. Concentration of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 in CSF of patient with bacterial meningitis was significantly higher (mean value; 705.2 pg/ml, 401.1 pg/ml and 1696.0 pg/ml) than in control group (viral meningitis: 7.93 pg/ml, 31.89 pg/ml, 405.28 pg/ml, without meningitis: 0.38 pg/ml, 2.55 pg/ml, 32.56 pg/ml). Negative correlation between concentration of investigated cytokines in the CSF of patient with bacterial meningitis and GCS has been observed. Furthermore TNF-alpha and IL-8 levels correlated with pleocytosis, and protein and glucose levels, whereas IL-1 beta correlated with pleocytosis and protein level in CSF. Connection between TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta but not IL-8 level and outcome of bacterial meningitis has been observed. High TNF-alpha in the CSF (median value 953 pg/ml) was associated with significant risk of patient death. IL-1 beta has been better prognostic indicator. Patients who developed neurological sequels had median value of IL-1 beta level 401.3 pg/ml, and those who died had 585.9 pg/ml vs 244.7 pg/ml in the group who survived without any complications. Analysis of the ROC curve-revealed, that concentration of IL-1 beta > or = 289.9 pg/ml with 88.9% sensitivity and 67.7% specifity differentiate cases who at risk for death. For TNF-alpha the cut-off was > or = 538.9 pg/ml. The sensitivity for determined critical point was 77%, and specificity was 68.7%. Our investigation confirm that TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 are useful in differential diagnosis of neuroinfections. Assessment of patients with bacterial meningitis on the basis of GCS is helpful to establish prognosis, and CGS seems to correlate with the intensity of inflammation in the CSF. High concentration of TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in the CSF are associated with the risk of patient death during the course of bacterial meningitis, but IL-1 beta has been the better prognostic marker.