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Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures.
Pediatrics. 2004 Jul; 114(1):e68-73.Ped

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California.

METHODS

In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities.

RESULTS

Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel.

CONCLUSIONS

Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. mpw5@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15231975

Citation

Weinberg, Michelle, et al. "Hepatitis a in Hispanic Children Who Live Along the United States-Mexico Border: the Role of International Travel and Food-borne Exposures." Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 1, 2004, pp. e68-73.
Weinberg M, Hopkins J, Farrington L, et al. Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):e68-73.
Weinberg, M., Hopkins, J., Farrington, L., Gresham, L., Ginsberg, M., & Bell, B. P. (2004). Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures. Pediatrics, 114(1), e68-73.
Weinberg M, et al. Hepatitis a in Hispanic Children Who Live Along the United States-Mexico Border: the Role of International Travel and Food-borne Exposures. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):e68-73. PubMed PMID: 15231975.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures. AU - Weinberg,Michelle, AU - Hopkins,Jackie, AU - Farrington,Leigh, AU - Gresham,Louise, AU - Ginsberg,Michele, AU - Bell,Beth P, PY - 2004/7/3/pubmed PY - 2004/10/1/medline PY - 2004/7/3/entrez SP - e68 EP - 73 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 114 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California. METHODS: In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities. RESULTS: Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15231975/Hepatitis_A_in_Hispanic_children_who_live_along_the_United_States_Mexico_border:_the_role_of_international_travel_and_food_borne_exposures_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15231975 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -