Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Socioeconomic risk factors for breast cancer: distinguishing individual- and community-level effects.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Women are at higher risk of breast cancer if they have higher socioeconomic status (SES) or live in higher SES or urban communities. We examined whether women living in such communities remained at greater risk of breast cancer after controlling for individual education and other known individual-level risk factors.

METHODS

Data were from a population-based, breast cancer case-control study conducted in Wisconsin from 1988 to 1995 (n = 14,667). Data on community SES and urbanicity come from the 1990 census, measured at the census tract and zip code levels. We evaluated relationships between individual- and community-level variables and breast cancer risk using multilevel logistic regression models with random community intercepts.

RESULTS

After controlling for individual education and other individual-level risk factors (age, mammography use, family history of breast cancer, parity, age at first birth, alcohol intake, body mass index, hormone replacement use, oral contraceptive use, and menopausal status), women living in the highest SES communities had greater odds of having breast cancer than women living in the lowest SES communities (1.20; 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.37). Similarly, the odds were greater for women in urban versus rural communities (1.17; 1.06-1.28).

CONCLUSIONS

Community SES and urbanicity are apparently not simply proxies for individual SES. Future research should examine why living in such communities itself is associated with greater risk of breast cancer.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Social Work, Center for Demography of Health and Aging, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 53706, USA. sarobert@wisc.edu

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 15:4 2004 Jul pg 442-50

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Breast Neoplasms
    Case-Control Studies
    Censuses
    Female
    Humans
    Interviews as Topic
    Logistic Models
    Middle Aged
    Registries
    Residence Characteristics
    Risk Factors
    Rural Health
    Social Class
    Socioeconomic Factors
    Urban Health
    Wisconsin

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15232405

    Citation

    Robert, Stephanie A., et al. "Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: Distinguishing Individual- and Community-level Effects." Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), vol. 15, no. 4, 2004, pp. 442-50.
    Robert SA, Strombom I, Trentham-Dietz A, et al. Socioeconomic risk factors for breast cancer: distinguishing individual- and community-level effects. Epidemiology. 2004;15(4):442-50.
    Robert, S. A., Strombom, I., Trentham-Dietz, A., Hampton, J. M., McElroy, J. A., Newcomb, P. A., & Remington, P. L. (2004). Socioeconomic risk factors for breast cancer: distinguishing individual- and community-level effects. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 15(4), pp. 442-50.
    Robert SA, et al. Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: Distinguishing Individual- and Community-level Effects. Epidemiology. 2004;15(4):442-50. PubMed PMID: 15232405.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Socioeconomic risk factors for breast cancer: distinguishing individual- and community-level effects. AU - Robert,Stephanie A, AU - Strombom,Indiana, AU - Trentham-Dietz,Amy, AU - Hampton,John M, AU - McElroy,Jane A, AU - Newcomb,Polly A, AU - Remington,Patrick L, PY - 2004/7/3/pubmed PY - 2004/9/10/medline PY - 2004/7/3/entrez SP - 442 EP - 50 JF - Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) JO - Epidemiology VL - 15 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Women are at higher risk of breast cancer if they have higher socioeconomic status (SES) or live in higher SES or urban communities. We examined whether women living in such communities remained at greater risk of breast cancer after controlling for individual education and other known individual-level risk factors. METHODS: Data were from a population-based, breast cancer case-control study conducted in Wisconsin from 1988 to 1995 (n = 14,667). Data on community SES and urbanicity come from the 1990 census, measured at the census tract and zip code levels. We evaluated relationships between individual- and community-level variables and breast cancer risk using multilevel logistic regression models with random community intercepts. RESULTS: After controlling for individual education and other individual-level risk factors (age, mammography use, family history of breast cancer, parity, age at first birth, alcohol intake, body mass index, hormone replacement use, oral contraceptive use, and menopausal status), women living in the highest SES communities had greater odds of having breast cancer than women living in the lowest SES communities (1.20; 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.37). Similarly, the odds were greater for women in urban versus rural communities (1.17; 1.06-1.28). CONCLUSIONS: Community SES and urbanicity are apparently not simply proxies for individual SES. Future research should examine why living in such communities itself is associated with greater risk of breast cancer. SN - 1044-3983 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15232405/Socioeconomic_risk_factors_for_breast_cancer:_distinguishing_individual__and_community_level_effects_ L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=15232405 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -