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Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies.
J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96(13):1015-22JNCI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Studies in animals have suggested that calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies of intake of calcium or dairy foods and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive.

METHODS

We pooled the primary data from 10 cohort studies in five countries that assessed usual dietary intake by using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. For most studies, follow-up was extended beyond that in the original publication. The studies included 534 536 individuals, among whom 4992 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed between 6 and 16 years of follow-up. Pooled multivariable relative risks for categories of milk intake and quintiles of calcium intake and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

Milk intake was related to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Compared with the lowest category of intake (<70 g/day), relative risks of colorectal cancer for increasing categories (70-174, 175-249, and > or =250 g/day) of milk intake were 0.94 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.02), 0.88 (95% CI = 0.81 to 0.96), and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94), respectively (P(trend)<.001). Calcium intake was also inversely related to the risk of colorectal cancer. The relative risk for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.95; P(trend) =.02) for dietary calcium and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.88; P(trend)<.001) for total calcium (combining dietary and supplemental sources). These results were consistent across studies and sex. The inverse association for milk was limited to cancers of the distal colon (P(trend)<.001) and rectum (P(trend) =.02).

CONCLUSION

Higher consumption of milk and calcium is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. eunyoung.cho@channing.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15240785

Citation

Cho, Eunyoung, et al. "Dairy Foods, Calcium, and Colorectal Cancer: a Pooled Analysis of 10 Cohort Studies." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 96, no. 13, 2004, pp. 1015-22.
Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, et al. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(13):1015-22.
Cho, E., Smith-Warner, S. A., Spiegelman, D., Beeson, W. L., van den Brandt, P. A., Colditz, G. A., ... Hunter, D. J. (2004). Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96(13), pp. 1015-22.
Cho E, et al. Dairy Foods, Calcium, and Colorectal Cancer: a Pooled Analysis of 10 Cohort Studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jul 7;96(13):1015-22. PubMed PMID: 15240785.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. AU - Cho,Eunyoung, AU - Smith-Warner,Stephanie A, AU - Spiegelman,Donna, AU - Beeson,W Lawrence, AU - van den Brandt,Piet A, AU - Colditz,Graham A, AU - Folsom,Aaron R, AU - Fraser,Gary E, AU - Freudenheim,Jo L, AU - Giovannucci,Edward, AU - Goldbohm,R Alexandra, AU - Graham,Saxon, AU - Miller,Anthony B, AU - Pietinen,Pirjo, AU - Potter,John D, AU - Rohan,Thomas E, AU - Terry,Paul, AU - Toniolo,Paolo, AU - Virtanen,Mikko J, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Wolk,Alicja, AU - Wu,Kana, AU - Yaun,Shiaw-Shyuan, AU - Zeleniuch-Jacquotte,Anne, AU - Hunter,David J, PY - 2004/7/9/pubmed PY - 2004/7/29/medline PY - 2004/7/9/entrez SP - 1015 EP - 22 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 96 IS - 13 N2 - BACKGROUND: Studies in animals have suggested that calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies of intake of calcium or dairy foods and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive. METHODS: We pooled the primary data from 10 cohort studies in five countries that assessed usual dietary intake by using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. For most studies, follow-up was extended beyond that in the original publication. The studies included 534 536 individuals, among whom 4992 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed between 6 and 16 years of follow-up. Pooled multivariable relative risks for categories of milk intake and quintiles of calcium intake and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Milk intake was related to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Compared with the lowest category of intake (<70 g/day), relative risks of colorectal cancer for increasing categories (70-174, 175-249, and > or =250 g/day) of milk intake were 0.94 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.02), 0.88 (95% CI = 0.81 to 0.96), and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94), respectively (P(trend)<.001). Calcium intake was also inversely related to the risk of colorectal cancer. The relative risk for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.95; P(trend) =.02) for dietary calcium and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.88; P(trend)<.001) for total calcium (combining dietary and supplemental sources). These results were consistent across studies and sex. The inverse association for milk was limited to cancers of the distal colon (P(trend)<.001) and rectum (P(trend) =.02). CONCLUSION: Higher consumption of milk and calcium is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. SN - 1460-2105 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15240785/Dairy_foods_calcium_and_colorectal_cancer:_a_pooled_analysis_of_10_cohort_studies_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/djh185 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -