Differential regulation of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase activity by ERK 1/2- and p38 MAPK-modulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 expression controls transforming growth factor-beta1-induced pericellular collagenolysis.J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 10; 279(37):39042-50.JB
Acquisition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity is temporally associated with increased migration and invasiveness of cancer cells. ProMMP-2 activation requires multimolecular complex assembly involving proMMP-2, membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2). Because transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) promotes tumor invasion in advanced squamous cell carcinomas, the role of TGF-beta1 in the regulation of MMP activity in a cellular model of invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma was examined. Treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells with TGF-beta1 promoted MMP-dependent cell scattering and collagen invasion, increased expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, and enhanced MMP-2 activation. TGF-beta1 induced concomitant activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, and kinase inhibition studies revealed a negative regulatory role for ERK1/2 in modulating acquisition of MMP-2 activity. Thus, a reciprocal effect on proMMP-2 activation was observed whereupon blocking ERK1/2 phosphorylation promoted proMMP-2 activation and MT1-MMP activity, whereas inhibiting p38 MAPK activity decreased proteolytic potential. The cellular mechanism for the control of MT1-MMP catalytic activity involved concurrent reciprocal modulation of TIMP-2 expression by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs, such that inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation decreased TIMP-2 production, and down-regulation of p38 MAPK activity enhanced TIMP-2 synthesis. Further, p38 MAPK inhibition promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation, providing additional evidence for cross-talk between MAPK pathways. These observations demonstrate the complex reciprocal effects of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in the regulation of MMP activity, which could complicate the use of MAPK-specific inhibitors as therapeutic agents to down-regulate the biologic effects of TGF-beta1 on pericellular collagen degradation and tumor invasion.