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Update on neuroimaging in infectious central nervous system disease.
Curr Opin Neurol. 2004 Aug; 17(4):475-80.CO

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

Neuroimaging constitutes an important component in the diagnosis of the underlying infectious agents in central nervous system infection. This review summarizes progress in the neuroimaging of infectious central nervous system disease since January 2003. It focuses on imaging of viral encephalitis, including that caused by exotic and emerging viruses, and on imaging in immunodeficient patients.

RECENT FINDINGS

Diffusion-weighted imaging has been shown to be superior to conventional magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of early signal abnormalities in herpes simplex virus encephalitis but also in enterovirus 71 encephalitis and in West Nile encephalitis. Several studies defined the pattern of magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in endemic diseases such as West Nile encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, enterovirus 71 encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, but also in encephalitides due to ubiquitous viruses such as measles virus and Lyssavirus (rabies). In patients with HIV infection, apparent diffusion coefficient ratios obtained by diffusion-weighted imaging were significantly greater in lesions due to Toxoplasma encephalitis than in primary central nervous system lymphomas.

SUMMARY

The diagnosis of unclear infectious central nervous system diseases remains a challenge. More recent magnetic resonance imaging techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, provide additional helpful information. However, the mainstay of diagnosis remains the detection of viral DNA or serological markers of specific infectious agents within the cerebrospinal fluid.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurology and Department of Radiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. Matthias.Maschke@uni-essen.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15247545

Citation

Maschke, Matthias, et al. "Update On Neuroimaging in Infectious Central Nervous System Disease." Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 17, no. 4, 2004, pp. 475-80.
Maschke M, Kastrup O, Forsting M, et al. Update on neuroimaging in infectious central nervous system disease. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004;17(4):475-80.
Maschke, M., Kastrup, O., Forsting, M., & Diener, H. C. (2004). Update on neuroimaging in infectious central nervous system disease. Current Opinion in Neurology, 17(4), 475-80.
Maschke M, et al. Update On Neuroimaging in Infectious Central Nervous System Disease. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004;17(4):475-80. PubMed PMID: 15247545.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Update on neuroimaging in infectious central nervous system disease. AU - Maschke,Matthias, AU - Kastrup,Oliver, AU - Forsting,Michael, AU - Diener,Hans-Christoph, PY - 2004/7/13/pubmed PY - 2004/11/2/medline PY - 2004/7/13/entrez SP - 475 EP - 80 JF - Current opinion in neurology JO - Curr. Opin. Neurol. VL - 17 IS - 4 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimaging constitutes an important component in the diagnosis of the underlying infectious agents in central nervous system infection. This review summarizes progress in the neuroimaging of infectious central nervous system disease since January 2003. It focuses on imaging of viral encephalitis, including that caused by exotic and emerging viruses, and on imaging in immunodeficient patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Diffusion-weighted imaging has been shown to be superior to conventional magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of early signal abnormalities in herpes simplex virus encephalitis but also in enterovirus 71 encephalitis and in West Nile encephalitis. Several studies defined the pattern of magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in endemic diseases such as West Nile encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, enterovirus 71 encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, but also in encephalitides due to ubiquitous viruses such as measles virus and Lyssavirus (rabies). In patients with HIV infection, apparent diffusion coefficient ratios obtained by diffusion-weighted imaging were significantly greater in lesions due to Toxoplasma encephalitis than in primary central nervous system lymphomas. SUMMARY: The diagnosis of unclear infectious central nervous system diseases remains a challenge. More recent magnetic resonance imaging techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, provide additional helpful information. However, the mainstay of diagnosis remains the detection of viral DNA or serological markers of specific infectious agents within the cerebrospinal fluid. SN - 1350-7540 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15247545/Update_on_neuroimaging_in_infectious_central_nervous_system_disease_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.wco.0000137540.29857.bf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -