Fluid and electrolyte intake and loss in elite soccer players during training.Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004; 14(3):333-46IJ
This study measured fluid balance during a 90-min preseason training session in the first team squad (24 players) of an English Premier League football team. Sweat loss was assessed from changes in body mass after correction for ingested fluids and urine passed. Sweat composition was measured by collection from patches attached to the skin at 4 sites. The weather was warm (24-29 degrees C), with moderate humidity (46-64%). The mean +/- SD body mass loss over the training session was 1.10+/- 0.43 kg, equivalent to a level of dehydration of 1.37 +/- 0.54% of the pre-training body mass. Mean fluid intake was 971 +/- 303 ml. Estimated total mean sweat loss was 2033 +/- 413 ml. Mean sweat electrolyte concentrations (mmol/L) were: sodium, 49 +/- 12; potassium, 6.0 +/- 1.3; chloride, 43 +/- 10. Total sweat sodium loss of 99+/- 24 mmol corresponds to a salt (sodium chloride) loss of 5.8 +/- 1.4 g. Mean urine osmolality measured on pre-training samples provided by the players was 666 +/- 311 mosmol/kg (n = 21). These data indicate that sweat losses of water and solute in football players in training can be substantial but vary greatly between players even with the same exercise and environmental conditions. Voluntary fluid intake also shows wide inter-individual variability and is generally insufficient to match fluid losses.