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Extinction deficit and fear reinstatement after electrical stimulation of the amygdala: implications for kindling-associated fear and anxiety.
Neuroscience. 2004; 127(2):277-87.N

Abstract

Generalized seizures produced by electrical kindling of the amygdala in laboratory rats are a widely used animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition to seizure evolution amygdala kindling enhances emotionality. The relative roles of electrical stimulation and seizure induction in fear responding are unclear. Here we investigate this issue using extinction and reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle. After classical conditioning (light+footshock pairings) laboratory rats were fear extinguished with each light presentation followed by nonepileptogenic amygdala stimulation. In contrast to the normal extinction learning of control subjects, amygdala stimulated animals exhibited conditioned fear after 120 presentations of the nonreinforced conditioned stimulus (CS). In a second experiment electrical stimulation of the amygdala restored extinguished fear responding and the fear reinstatement was specific to extinction context. The reinstatement effect did not involve sensitized fear to the CS produced by amygdala stimulation. The possibility that electrical activation of the amygdala produces unconditioned fear was considered. Animals uniformly failed to demonstrate fear-potentiated startle using electrical stimulation of the amygdala as the unconditioned stimulus. This was the case with a subthreshold afterdischarge stimulus and a stimulation schedule that produced kindled seizures. The extinction deficit and fear reinstatement results were interpreted to suggest that amygdala stimulation activates acquired excitatory stimulus-affect neural connections formed during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our data supports a model in which excitation of an amygdala-based memory-retrieval system reinforces the expression of learned fear behaviors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15262319

Citation

Kellett, J, and L Kokkinidis. "Extinction Deficit and Fear Reinstatement After Electrical Stimulation of the Amygdala: Implications for Kindling-associated Fear and Anxiety." Neuroscience, vol. 127, no. 2, 2004, pp. 277-87.
Kellett J, Kokkinidis L. Extinction deficit and fear reinstatement after electrical stimulation of the amygdala: implications for kindling-associated fear and anxiety. Neuroscience. 2004;127(2):277-87.
Kellett, J., & Kokkinidis, L. (2004). Extinction deficit and fear reinstatement after electrical stimulation of the amygdala: implications for kindling-associated fear and anxiety. Neuroscience, 127(2), 277-87.
Kellett J, Kokkinidis L. Extinction Deficit and Fear Reinstatement After Electrical Stimulation of the Amygdala: Implications for Kindling-associated Fear and Anxiety. Neuroscience. 2004;127(2):277-87. PubMed PMID: 15262319.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Extinction deficit and fear reinstatement after electrical stimulation of the amygdala: implications for kindling-associated fear and anxiety. AU - Kellett,J, AU - Kokkinidis,L, PY - 2004/05/06/accepted PY - 2004/7/21/pubmed PY - 2004/11/13/medline PY - 2004/7/21/entrez SP - 277 EP - 87 JF - Neuroscience JO - Neuroscience VL - 127 IS - 2 N2 - Generalized seizures produced by electrical kindling of the amygdala in laboratory rats are a widely used animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition to seizure evolution amygdala kindling enhances emotionality. The relative roles of electrical stimulation and seizure induction in fear responding are unclear. Here we investigate this issue using extinction and reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle. After classical conditioning (light+footshock pairings) laboratory rats were fear extinguished with each light presentation followed by nonepileptogenic amygdala stimulation. In contrast to the normal extinction learning of control subjects, amygdala stimulated animals exhibited conditioned fear after 120 presentations of the nonreinforced conditioned stimulus (CS). In a second experiment electrical stimulation of the amygdala restored extinguished fear responding and the fear reinstatement was specific to extinction context. The reinstatement effect did not involve sensitized fear to the CS produced by amygdala stimulation. The possibility that electrical activation of the amygdala produces unconditioned fear was considered. Animals uniformly failed to demonstrate fear-potentiated startle using electrical stimulation of the amygdala as the unconditioned stimulus. This was the case with a subthreshold afterdischarge stimulus and a stimulation schedule that produced kindled seizures. The extinction deficit and fear reinstatement results were interpreted to suggest that amygdala stimulation activates acquired excitatory stimulus-affect neural connections formed during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our data supports a model in which excitation of an amygdala-based memory-retrieval system reinforces the expression of learned fear behaviors. SN - 0306-4522 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15262319/Extinction_deficit_and_fear_reinstatement_after_electrical_stimulation_of_the_amygdala:_implications_for_kindling_associated_fear_and_anxiety_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306452204003665 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -