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Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiochemical and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism.

APPROACH

This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobiochemistry and clinical chemistry.

CONTENT

Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are produced by the adipose tissue. The protein leptin, a satiety hormone, regulates appetite and energy balance of the body. Adiponectin could suppress the development of atherosclerosis and liver fibrosis and might play a role as an antiinflammatory hormone. Increased resistin concentrations might cause insulin resistance and thus could link obesity with type II diabetes. Ghrelin is produced in the stomach. In addition to its role in long-term regulation of energy metabolism, it is involved in the short-term regulation of feeding. These hormones have important roles in energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function, and immunity. They directly influence other organ systems, including the brain, liver, and skeletal muscle, and are significantly regulated by nutritional status. This newly discovered secretory function has extended the biological relevance of adipose tissue, which is no longer considered as only an energy storage site.

SUMMARY

The functional roles, structures, synthesis, analytical aspects, and clinical significance of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are summarized.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Rhenish-Westphalian Technical University, University Hospital Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074, Germany. umeier@ukaachen.de

    Source

    Clinical chemistry 50:9 2004 Sep pg 1511-25

    MeSH

    Adiponectin
    Adipose Tissue
    Animals
    Energy Metabolism
    Gastric Mucosa
    Ghrelin
    Hormones, Ectopic
    Humans
    Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
    Leptin
    Liver
    Muscle, Skeletal
    Obesity
    Peptide Hormones
    Proteins
    Receptors, Cell Surface
    Receptors, Leptin
    Resistin

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15265818

    Citation

    Meier, Ursula, and Axel M. Gressner. "Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin." Clinical Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 9, 2004, pp. 1511-25.
    Meier U, Gressner AM. Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiochemical and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin. Clin Chem. 2004;50(9):1511-25.
    Meier, U., & Gressner, A. M. (2004). Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiochemical and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin. Clinical Chemistry, 50(9), pp. 1511-25.
    Meier U, Gressner AM. Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin. Clin Chem. 2004;50(9):1511-25. PubMed PMID: 15265818.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiochemical and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin. AU - Meier,Ursula, AU - Gressner,Axel M, Y1 - 2004/07/20/ PY - 2004/7/22/pubmed PY - 2004/10/1/medline PY - 2004/7/22/entrez SP - 1511 EP - 25 JF - Clinical chemistry JO - Clin. Chem. VL - 50 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. APPROACH: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobiochemistry and clinical chemistry. CONTENT: Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are produced by the adipose tissue. The protein leptin, a satiety hormone, regulates appetite and energy balance of the body. Adiponectin could suppress the development of atherosclerosis and liver fibrosis and might play a role as an antiinflammatory hormone. Increased resistin concentrations might cause insulin resistance and thus could link obesity with type II diabetes. Ghrelin is produced in the stomach. In addition to its role in long-term regulation of energy metabolism, it is involved in the short-term regulation of feeding. These hormones have important roles in energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function, and immunity. They directly influence other organ systems, including the brain, liver, and skeletal muscle, and are significantly regulated by nutritional status. This newly discovered secretory function has extended the biological relevance of adipose tissue, which is no longer considered as only an energy storage site. SUMMARY: The functional roles, structures, synthesis, analytical aspects, and clinical significance of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are summarized. SN - 0009-9147 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15265818/Endocrine_regulation_of_energy_metabolism:_review_of_pathobiochemical_and_clinical_chemical_aspects_of_leptin_ghrelin_adiponectin_and_resistin_ L2 - http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15265818 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -