Differential effects of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists on superoxide production and MnSOD activity in rat brain following intrahippocampal injection.Brain Res Bull. 2004 Jul 30; 64(1):85-93.BR
The involvement of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in the induction of superoxide radical production in the rat brain was examined after injection of kainate, non-NMDA receptor agonist, kainate plus 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), selective AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, or kainate plus 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), selective NMDA receptor antagonist. Competitive glutamate receptor antagonists were injected with kainate unilaterally into the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus. We investigated superoxide production and mitochondrial MnSOD activity after injection. The measurements took place at different times (5, 15 min, 2, 48 h and 7 days) in the ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus, forebrain cortex, striatum, and cerebellum homogenates. Used glutamate antagonists APV and CNQX both expressed sufficient neuroprotection in sense of decreasing superoxide production and increasing MnSOD levels, but with differential effect in mechanisms and time dynamics. Our findings suggest that NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors are differentially involved in superoxide production. Following intrahippocampal antagonists injection they, also, interpose different neuroprotection effect on the induction of MnSOD activity in distinct brain regions affected by the injury, which are functionally connected via afferents and efferents. It suggests that MnSOD protects the cells in these regions from superoxide-induced damage and therefore may limit the retrograde and anterograde spread of neurotoxicity.