Photolysis of spinosyns in seawater, stream water and various aqueous solutions.Chemosphere. 2004 Sep; 56(11):1121-7.C
Spinosad, a reduced-risk insecticide, contains primarily two active compounds, spinosyns A and D that are fermentation products of bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. It is currently used to control fruit flies in Hawaii, USA. In this study, we investigated photodegradation of spinosyns A and D, respectively, in seawater, stream, tap and distilled-deionized waters under various light sources. Photodegradation of the two chemicals was also studied in various aqueous solutions prepared with phosphate buffer at different pH or chemical sensitizers. Two major photolytic products from spinosyn A were detected as spinosyn B and hydroxylated spinosyn A. Spinosyn D was similarly hydroxylated and N-demethylated. Spinosyns A and D were photodegraded rapidly under sunlight in Hawaii, USA. The half-life of spinosyns A and D in stream water was 1.1 and 1.0 h, respectively, and was a half of that in distilled-deionized water, 2.2 and 2.0 h, respectively. Photodegradation of spinosyns A and D followed an order of increasing rate constants in distilled-deionized, seawater, stream and tap water under 300 nm artificial light, and was enhanced approximately 8- and 17-fold, respectively, in acetone-sensitized solution as compared to in distilled-deionized water. Photolysis rates of spinosyns A and D in isopropanol- or humic acid-fortified water did not differ much as compared with those accordingly in distilled-deionized water. Spinosyns A and D photodegraded slower in acidic aqueous solution than in basic aqueous solution.