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Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products?

Abstract

Mean dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in the US adult population are far below the adequate intake (AI) values recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and thus substantial segments of the American population have inadequate intakes and elevated risks of osteoporosis and colon cancer. The current Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, sets standards for the optional addition of moderate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in the enrichment of cereal-grain products, a provision that is essentially not used. We propose that the addition of calcium and vitamin D to currently enriched cereal-grain products be mandated in the United States: this would result in an increase in mean daily dietary intakes in the United States of approximately 400 mg Ca and > or =50 IU (or possibly >200 IU) vitamin D. The benefits would be a significant reduction in the incidences of osteoporosis and colon cancer over time and overall improvement in health, with little risk and a modest financial cost because of the ability to capitalize on existing technology. We suggest a full scientific review of cereal-grain enrichment with calcium and vitamin D.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020, USA. pnewmark@aol.com

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Calcium, Dietary
    Child
    Colonic Neoplasms
    Edible Grain
    Female
    Food, Fortified
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutritional Requirements
    Osteoporosis
    Pellagra
    United States
    Vitamin D

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15277144

    Citation

    Newmark, Harold L., et al. "Should Calcium and Vitamin D Be Added to the Current Enrichment Program for Cereal-grain Products?" The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 2, 2004, pp. 264-70.
    Newmark HL, Heaney RP, Lachance PA. Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(2):264-70.
    Newmark, H. L., Heaney, R. P., & Lachance, P. A. (2004). Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(2), pp. 264-70.
    Newmark HL, Heaney RP, Lachance PA. Should Calcium and Vitamin D Be Added to the Current Enrichment Program for Cereal-grain Products. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(2):264-70. PubMed PMID: 15277144.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Should calcium and vitamin D be added to the current enrichment program for cereal-grain products? AU - Newmark,Harold L, AU - Heaney,Robert P, AU - Lachance,Paul A, PY - 2004/7/28/pubmed PY - 2004/9/1/medline PY - 2004/7/28/entrez SP - 264 EP - 70 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 80 IS - 2 N2 - Mean dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in the US adult population are far below the adequate intake (AI) values recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and thus substantial segments of the American population have inadequate intakes and elevated risks of osteoporosis and colon cancer. The current Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, sets standards for the optional addition of moderate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in the enrichment of cereal-grain products, a provision that is essentially not used. We propose that the addition of calcium and vitamin D to currently enriched cereal-grain products be mandated in the United States: this would result in an increase in mean daily dietary intakes in the United States of approximately 400 mg Ca and > or =50 IU (or possibly >200 IU) vitamin D. The benefits would be a significant reduction in the incidences of osteoporosis and colon cancer over time and overall improvement in health, with little risk and a modest financial cost because of the ability to capitalize on existing technology. We suggest a full scientific review of cereal-grain enrichment with calcium and vitamin D. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15277144/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/80.2.264 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -