Nitric oxide-releasing sol-gel particle/polyurethane glucose biosensors.Anal Chem. 2004 Aug 01; 76(15):4543-9.AC
A hybrid sol-gel/polyurethane glucose biosensor that releases nitric oxide is developed and characterized. The biosensor consists of a platinum electrode coated with four polymeric membranes including the following: (1) sol-gel with immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx); (2) polyurethane to protect the enzyme; (3) NO donor-modified sol-gel particle-doped polyurethane; and (4) polyurethane. This configuration was developed due to the drastic reduction in sensitivity observed for NO donor-modified sol-gel film-based glucose sensors. For the hybrid sol-gel/polyurethane biosensor, sol-gel particles are first modified with the NO donor and then incorporated into a polyurethane layer that is coated onto the preimmobilized GOx electrode. In this manner, the GOx layer is not exposed to the harsh conditions necessary to impart NO release ability to the biosensor, and only a minimal decrease in sensitivity due to the NO release is observed. The glucose response of the NO-releasing glucose biosensor and its NO generation profiles are reported. In addition, the stability of the sol-gel particles in the supporting polyurethane membrane is discussed.