Aging, gender and APOE isotype modulate metabolism of Alzheimer's Abeta peptides and F-isoprostanes in the absence of detectable amyloid deposits.J Neurochem 2004; 90(4):1011-8JN
Aging and apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoform are among the most consistent risks for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metabolic factors that modulate risk have been elusive, though oxidative reactions and their by-products have been implicated in human AD and in transgenic mice with overt histological amyloidosis. We investigated the relationship between the levels of endogenous murine amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides and the levels of a marker of oxidation in mice that never develop histological amyloidosis [i.e. APOE knockout (KO) mice with or without transgenic human APOEepsilon3 or human APOEepsilon4 alleles]. Aging-, gender-, and APOE-genotype-dependent changes were observed for endogenous mouse brain Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides. Levels of the oxidized lipid F2-isoprostane (F2-isoPs) in the brains of the same animals as those used for the Abeta analyses revealed aging- and gender-dependent changes in APOE KO and in human APOEepsilon4 transgenic KO mice. Human APOEepsilon3 transgenic KO mice did not exhibit aging- or gender-dependent increases in F2-isoPs. In general, the changes in the levels of brain F2-isoPs in mice according to age, gender, and APOE genotype mirrored the changes in brain Abeta levels, which, in turn, paralleled known trends in the risk for human AD. These data indicate that there exists an aging-dependent, APOE-genotype-sensitive rise in murine brain Abeta levels despite the apparent inability of the peptide to form histologically detectable amyloid. Human APOEepsilon3, but not human APOEepsilon4, can apparently prevent the aging-dependent rise in murine brain Abeta levels, consistent with the relative risk for AD associated with these genotypes. The fidelity of the brain Abeta/F2-isoP relationship across multiple relevant variables supports the hypothesis that oxidized lipids play a role in AD pathogenesis, as has been suggested by recent evidence that F2-isoPs can stimulate Abeta generation and aggregation.