Inhibition of activator protein 1 activation, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in colon carcinoma cells: evidence for a redox-sensitive peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-independent mechanism.Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 01; 64(15):5162-71.CR
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are significantly associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we show that phorbol ester-mediated induction of VEGF and COX-2 expression in colon carcinoma cells is inhibited by 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)). This cyclopentenone was able to inhibit activator protein1 (AP-1)-dependent transcriptional induction of COX-2 and VEGF promoters induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or c-Jun overexpression. 15d-PGJ(2) interfered with at least two steps within the signaling pathway leading to AP-1 activation. First, 15d-PGJ(2) impaired AP-1 binding to a consensus DNA sequence. Second, 15d-PGJ(2) selectively inhibited c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation induced by PMA. This led to a decreased ability of JNK to phosphorylate c-Jun and to activate its transactivating activity. Inhibition of AP-1 activation and COX-2 or VEGF transcriptional induction by this cyclopentenone was found to be independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) because it was not affected by either expression of a dominant negative form of PPARgamma or the use of a PPARgamma antagonist. In contrast, we have found that the effects of 15d-PGJ(2) on AP-1 activation may occur through its ability to induce intracellular oxidative stress. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine significantly reversed the inhibition by 15d-PGJ(2) of AP-1 activity and COX-2 or VEGF transcriptional induction. Together, these findings provide new insight into the antitumoral properties of 15d-PGJ(2) through the inhibition of the induction of AP-1-dependent genes involved in tumor progression, such as COX-2 and VEGF.