[Acute hepatopathies in pregnancy: diagnosis and therapy].Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1992 Aug 18; 81(34):980-2.SR
Severe liver disease complicates pregnancy in only 0.1% of the cases. Viral hepatitis is the most common cause (40%). (Liver cirrhosis usually results in amenorrhea). Liver disease unique to pregnancy comprises "intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy" (Increased fetal risk), "acute fatty liver of pregnancy" (AFLP) and "HELLP-syndrome", both with high maternal and fetal risk when untreated. AFLP and HELLP-syndrome are diseases of the third trimester and show similar clinical signs of jaundice, coagulopathy and elevated liver enzymes. The immediate termination of pregnancy preferably by Caesarean section has been shown to improve both, maternal and fetal outcome. Imaging methods like ultrasound are invaluable in the differential diagnosis and detection of complications like subcapsular hematoma in the liver patients with HELLP-syndrome. Fulminant hepatic failure requires intensive care, liver transplantation is an additional therapeutic option. Recurrent AFLP has been reported recently.