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The global burden of typhoid fever.
Bull World Health Organ. 2004 May; 82(5):346-53.BW

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts.

METHODS

Population-based studies using confirmation by blood culture of typhoid fever cases were sought by computer search of the multilingual scientific literature. Where there were no eligible studies, data were extrapolated from neighbouring countries and regions. Age-incidence curves were used to model rates measured among narrow age cohorts to the general population. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the sensitivity of the estimate to the assumptions. The burden of paratyphoid fever was derived by a proportional method.

FINDINGS

A total of 22 eligible studies were identified. Regions with high incidence of typhoid fever (>100/100,000 cases/year) include south-central Asia and south-eastAsia. Regions of medium incidence (10-100/100,000 cases/year) include the rest of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand. Europe, North America, and the rest of the developed world have low incidence of typhoid fever (<10/100,000 cases/year). We estimate that typhoid fever caused 21,650,974 illnesses and 216,510 deaths during 2000 and that paratyphoid fever caused 5,412,744 illnesses.

CONCLUSION

New data and improved understanding of typhoid fever epidemiology enabled us to refine the global typhoid burden estimate, which remains considerable. More detailed incidence studies in selected countries and regions, particularly Africa, are needed to further improve the estimate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, MS A-38, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. jcrump@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15298225

Citation

Crump, John A., et al. "The Global Burden of Typhoid Fever." Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 82, no. 5, 2004, pp. 346-53.
Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(5):346-53.
Crump, J. A., Luby, S. P., & Mintz, E. D. (2004). The global burden of typhoid fever. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82(5), 346-53.
Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The Global Burden of Typhoid Fever. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(5):346-53. PubMed PMID: 15298225.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The global burden of typhoid fever. AU - Crump,John A, AU - Luby,Stephen P, AU - Mintz,Eric D, PY - 2004/8/10/pubmed PY - 2004/9/24/medline PY - 2004/8/10/entrez SP - 346 EP - 53 JF - Bulletin of the World Health Organization JO - Bull World Health Organ VL - 82 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts. METHODS: Population-based studies using confirmation by blood culture of typhoid fever cases were sought by computer search of the multilingual scientific literature. Where there were no eligible studies, data were extrapolated from neighbouring countries and regions. Age-incidence curves were used to model rates measured among narrow age cohorts to the general population. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the sensitivity of the estimate to the assumptions. The burden of paratyphoid fever was derived by a proportional method. FINDINGS: A total of 22 eligible studies were identified. Regions with high incidence of typhoid fever (>100/100,000 cases/year) include south-central Asia and south-eastAsia. Regions of medium incidence (10-100/100,000 cases/year) include the rest of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand. Europe, North America, and the rest of the developed world have low incidence of typhoid fever (<10/100,000 cases/year). We estimate that typhoid fever caused 21,650,974 illnesses and 216,510 deaths during 2000 and that paratyphoid fever caused 5,412,744 illnesses. CONCLUSION: New data and improved understanding of typhoid fever epidemiology enabled us to refine the global typhoid burden estimate, which remains considerable. More detailed incidence studies in selected countries and regions, particularly Africa, are needed to further improve the estimate. SN - 0042-9686 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15298225/The_global_burden_of_typhoid_fever_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/15298225/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -