Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels and fatty acid composition.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Breast milk contains many immunomodulatory factors (soluble CD14 (sCD14), IgA and cytokines) with the potential to influence infant immune development.

OBJECTIVE

To determine if changes in breast milk omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) composition as a result of maternal dietary fish oil supplementation during pregnancy can modify levels of these immunological parameters in breast milk.

METHOD

In a randomized controlled trial, 83 atopic women received either 4 g fish oil capsules (containing 3.7 g n-3 PUFA) (n = 40) or 4 g olive oil capsules (n = 43) from 20 weeks gestation until delivery. Breast milk was collected 3 days post-partum and fatty acids were analysed by gas liquid chromatography and IgA, sCD14 and cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were quantitated by ELISA or time resolved fluorescence (TRF).

RESULTS

Omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in breast milk from women supplemented with fish oil (n = 33, DHA mean 1.15%, SD 0.47% and EPA mean 0.16%, SD 0.07%) than in samples from the control group (n = 40, DHA mean 0.50%, SD 0.17% and EPA mean 0.05%, SD 0.02%). Breast milk arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) levels were significantly lower (P = 0.045) in the fish oil group (mean 0.55%, SD 0.12%) compared with the control group (mean 0.61%, SD 0.14%). Breast milk IgA was positively correlated with DHA (P = 0.046) and 22:5n-3 (P = 0.003), but inversely correlated with linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) (P=0.034). Levels of sCD14 were also positively correlated with 22:5n-3 (P=0.009). Cytokines involved in IgA synthesis (IL-10 and IL-6) were also significantly correlated with both IgA and n-3 PUFA levels, although there were no differences in the levels of breast milk IgA, sCD14 or cytokines between study groups.

CONCLUSION

Supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy significantly alters early post-partum breast milk fatty acid composition. omega-3 PUFA levels were positively associated with IgA and sCD14 levels, suggesting a relationship between fatty acid status and mucosal immune function.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia.

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Chi-Square Distribution
    Cytokines
    Dietary Supplements
    Double-Blind Method
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Fish Oils
    Humans
    Hypersensitivity
    Immunoglobulin A
    Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
    Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Milk, Human
    Olive Oil
    Plant Oils
    Pregnancy
    Pregnancy Complications

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15298564

    Citation

    Dunstan, J A., et al. "The Effect of Supplementation With Fish Oil During Pregnancy On Breast Milk Immunoglobulin A, Soluble CD14, Cytokine Levels and Fatty Acid Composition." Clinical and Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 34, no. 8, 2004, pp. 1237-42.
    Dunstan JA, Roper J, Mitoulas L, et al. The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels and fatty acid composition. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34(8):1237-42.
    Dunstan, J. A., Roper, J., Mitoulas, L., Hartmann, P. E., Simmer, K., & Prescott, S. L. (2004). The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels and fatty acid composition. Clinical and Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 34(8), pp. 1237-42.
    Dunstan JA, et al. The Effect of Supplementation With Fish Oil During Pregnancy On Breast Milk Immunoglobulin A, Soluble CD14, Cytokine Levels and Fatty Acid Composition. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34(8):1237-42. PubMed PMID: 15298564.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels and fatty acid composition. AU - Dunstan,J A, AU - Roper,J, AU - Mitoulas,L, AU - Hartmann,P E, AU - Simmer,K, AU - Prescott,S L, PY - 2004/8/10/pubmed PY - 2004/12/21/medline PY - 2004/8/10/entrez SP - 1237 EP - 42 JF - Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology JO - Clin. Exp. Allergy VL - 34 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Breast milk contains many immunomodulatory factors (soluble CD14 (sCD14), IgA and cytokines) with the potential to influence infant immune development. OBJECTIVE: To determine if changes in breast milk omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) composition as a result of maternal dietary fish oil supplementation during pregnancy can modify levels of these immunological parameters in breast milk. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial, 83 atopic women received either 4 g fish oil capsules (containing 3.7 g n-3 PUFA) (n = 40) or 4 g olive oil capsules (n = 43) from 20 weeks gestation until delivery. Breast milk was collected 3 days post-partum and fatty acids were analysed by gas liquid chromatography and IgA, sCD14 and cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were quantitated by ELISA or time resolved fluorescence (TRF). RESULTS: Omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in breast milk from women supplemented with fish oil (n = 33, DHA mean 1.15%, SD 0.47% and EPA mean 0.16%, SD 0.07%) than in samples from the control group (n = 40, DHA mean 0.50%, SD 0.17% and EPA mean 0.05%, SD 0.02%). Breast milk arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) levels were significantly lower (P = 0.045) in the fish oil group (mean 0.55%, SD 0.12%) compared with the control group (mean 0.61%, SD 0.14%). Breast milk IgA was positively correlated with DHA (P = 0.046) and 22:5n-3 (P = 0.003), but inversely correlated with linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) (P=0.034). Levels of sCD14 were also positively correlated with 22:5n-3 (P=0.009). Cytokines involved in IgA synthesis (IL-10 and IL-6) were also significantly correlated with both IgA and n-3 PUFA levels, although there were no differences in the levels of breast milk IgA, sCD14 or cytokines between study groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy significantly alters early post-partum breast milk fatty acid composition. omega-3 PUFA levels were positively associated with IgA and sCD14 levels, suggesting a relationship between fatty acid status and mucosal immune function. SN - 0954-7894 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15298564/The_effect_of_supplementation_with_fish_oil_during_pregnancy_on_breast_milk_immunoglobulin_A_soluble_CD14_cytokine_levels_and_fatty_acid_composition_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&amp;sid=nlm:pubmed&amp;issn=0954-7894&amp;date=2004&amp;volume=34&amp;issue=8&amp;spage=1237 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -