Testicular, other genital, and breast cancers in first-degree relatives of testicular cancer patients and controls.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13(8):1316-24CE
Previous studies showed an increased prevalence of testicular cancer among fathers and brothers of testicular cancer patients. We examined whether testicular, other genital, and breast cancers aggregate in parents and siblings of testicular cancer patients in a population-based case-control study, including males, ages 15 to 69 years at diagnosis, with primary malignant tumors of the testes or extragonadal germ cell tumors. Controls were ascertained through the mandatory registries of residents and frequency matched to the cases by age and region of residence. In a face-to-face interview, 269 cases and 797 controls provided health-related information on parents and siblings. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) based on the generalized estimating equations technique, adjusting for the matching variables and relatives' age. Three (1.1%) fathers and eight (3.2%) brothers of cases were affected with testicular cancer compared with four (0.5%) fathers and two (0.2%) brothers of controls. The OR (95% CI) of familial testicular cancer was 6.6 (2.35-18.77). Only nonseminoma patients had fathers with testicular cancer, whereas the affected brothers were all related to seminoma patients. Overall, we found an increased risk for genital other than testicular cancers (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.43-4.43). For breast cancer, we detected an increased risk in sisters (OR 9.5, 95% CI 2.01-45.16, adjusted for age of study participant and age of sister) but not in mothers. Our findings support the hypothesis that testicular and other genital cancers have a common familial component that may be due to genetic and shared exogenous factors such as estrogen exposure during fetal development.