Typhoid fever in travelers: who should be targeted for prevention?Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15; 39(2):186-91.CI
To clarify indications for typhoid vaccination, we reviewed laboratory-confirmed cases of typhoid fever reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1994 and 1999. To estimate the risk of adverse events associated with typhoid vaccination, we reviewed reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System for the same period. Acute Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection was reported for 1393 patients. Of these patients, recent travel was reported by 1027 (74%), only 36 (4%) of whom reported having received a vaccination. Six countries accounted for 76% of travel-associated cases (India [30%], Pakistan [13%], Mexico [12%], Bangladesh [8%], The Philippines [8%], and Haiti [5%]). For 626 travelers who traveled to a single country, the length of stay was <or=1 week for 31 (5%), <or=2 weeks for 100 (16%), <or=3 weeks for 169 (27%), <or=4 weeks for 232 (37%), <or=5 weeks for 338 (54%), and <or=6 weeks for 376 (60%). Reports of serious adverse events due to typhoid vaccination were very rare. Vaccination should be considered even for persons planning short-term travel to high-risk areas.