Effects of TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-beta and IL-6 alone or in combination, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor on cyclooxygenase expression, prostaglandin E2 production and bone resorption in mouse calvarial bone cells.Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Nov; 36(11):2270-80.IJ
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tyrosine kinase, which are involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in mouse calvarial osteoblasts, are stimulated by cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-1beta and IL-6 and, to a lesser extent, TNF-alpha, enhances COX-2 mRNA levels in calvarial osteoblasts. Simultaneous treatment with IL-6 and IL-1beta and TNF-alpha resulted in enhanced COX-2 mRNA levels accompanied by the cooperative stimulation of PGE(2) biosynthesis compared to cells treated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha or IL-6 alone. In contrast, the presence of TGF-beta reduced COX-2 mRNA level, PGE(2) biosynthesis and bone resorption induced by IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 or a combination thereof. However, neither IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 nor a combination of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 enhanced COX-1 mRNA levels in calvarial osteoblasts. A novel Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Herbimycin A (HERB), reduced COX-2 mRNA levels as well as PGE(2) production induced by IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 or a combination of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, whereas COX-1 mRNA levels remained unaffected. Finally, HERB was found to inhibit in vitro bone resorption. These results indicate that the cooperative effects of IL-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 on PGE(2) production are due to the enhanced expression of the COX-2 gene and that tyrosine kinase(s) are involved in COX-2 signal transduction in mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Thus, the Src family of kinase inhibitors may be useful in treating diseases associated with elevated bone loss.