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The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell. 2004 Sep; 16(9):2463-80.PC

Abstract

The interface between plants and the environment plays a dual role as a protective barrier as well as a medium for the exchange of gases, water, and nutrients. The primary aerial plant surfaces are covered by a cuticle, acting as the essential permeability barrier toward the atmosphere. It is a heterogeneous layer composed mainly of lipids, namely cutin and intracuticular wax with epicuticular waxes deposited on the surface. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag gain-of-function mutant shine (shn) that displayed a brilliant, shiny green leaf surface with increased cuticular wax compared with the leaves of wild-type plants. The gene responsible for the phenotype encodes one member of a clade of three proteins of undisclosed function, belonging to the plant-specific family of AP2/EREBP transcription factors. Overexpression of all three SHN clade genes conferred a phenotype similar to that of the original shn mutant. Biochemically, such plants were altered in wax composition (very long fatty acid derivatives). Total cuticular wax levels were increased sixfold in shn compared with the wild type, mainly because of a ninefold increase in alkanes that comprised approximately half of the total waxes in the mutant. Chlorophyll leaching assays and fresh weight loss experiments indicated that overexpression of the SHN genes increased cuticle permeability, probably because of changes in its ultrastructure. Likewise, SHN gene overexpression altered leaf and petal epidermal cell structure, trichome number, and branching as well as the stomatal index. Interestingly, SHN overexpressors displayed significant drought tolerance and recovery, probably related to the reduced stomatal density. Expression analysis using promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions of the SHN genes provides evidence for the role of the SHN clade in plant protective layers, such as those formed during abscission, dehiscence, wounding, tissue strengthening, and the cuticle. We propose that these diverse functions are mediated by regulating metabolism of lipid and/or cell wall components.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Plant Research International, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15319479

Citation

Aharoni, Asaph, et al. "The SHINE Clade of AP2 Domain Transcription Factors Activates Wax Biosynthesis, Alters Cuticle Properties, and Confers Drought Tolerance when Overexpressed in Arabidopsis." The Plant Cell, vol. 16, no. 9, 2004, pp. 2463-80.
Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, et al. The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004;16(9):2463-80.
Aharoni, A., Dixit, S., Jetter, R., Thoenes, E., van Arkel, G., & Pereira, A. (2004). The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell, 16(9), 2463-80.
Aharoni A, et al. The SHINE Clade of AP2 Domain Transcription Factors Activates Wax Biosynthesis, Alters Cuticle Properties, and Confers Drought Tolerance when Overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004;16(9):2463-80. PubMed PMID: 15319479.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. AU - Aharoni,Asaph, AU - Dixit,Shital, AU - Jetter,Reinhard, AU - Thoenes,Eveline, AU - van Arkel,Gert, AU - Pereira,Andy, Y1 - 2004/08/19/ PY - 2004/8/21/pubmed PY - 2004/12/16/medline PY - 2004/8/21/entrez SP - 2463 EP - 80 JF - The Plant cell JO - Plant Cell VL - 16 IS - 9 N2 - The interface between plants and the environment plays a dual role as a protective barrier as well as a medium for the exchange of gases, water, and nutrients. The primary aerial plant surfaces are covered by a cuticle, acting as the essential permeability barrier toward the atmosphere. It is a heterogeneous layer composed mainly of lipids, namely cutin and intracuticular wax with epicuticular waxes deposited on the surface. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag gain-of-function mutant shine (shn) that displayed a brilliant, shiny green leaf surface with increased cuticular wax compared with the leaves of wild-type plants. The gene responsible for the phenotype encodes one member of a clade of three proteins of undisclosed function, belonging to the plant-specific family of AP2/EREBP transcription factors. Overexpression of all three SHN clade genes conferred a phenotype similar to that of the original shn mutant. Biochemically, such plants were altered in wax composition (very long fatty acid derivatives). Total cuticular wax levels were increased sixfold in shn compared with the wild type, mainly because of a ninefold increase in alkanes that comprised approximately half of the total waxes in the mutant. Chlorophyll leaching assays and fresh weight loss experiments indicated that overexpression of the SHN genes increased cuticle permeability, probably because of changes in its ultrastructure. Likewise, SHN gene overexpression altered leaf and petal epidermal cell structure, trichome number, and branching as well as the stomatal index. Interestingly, SHN overexpressors displayed significant drought tolerance and recovery, probably related to the reduced stomatal density. Expression analysis using promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions of the SHN genes provides evidence for the role of the SHN clade in plant protective layers, such as those formed during abscission, dehiscence, wounding, tissue strengthening, and the cuticle. We propose that these diverse functions are mediated by regulating metabolism of lipid and/or cell wall components. SN - 1040-4651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15319479/The_SHINE_clade_of_AP2_domain_transcription_factors_activates_wax_biosynthesis_alters_cuticle_properties_and_confers_drought_tolerance_when_overexpressed_in_Arabidopsis_ L2 - http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15319479 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -