Improved drug dissolution and product characterization using a crescent-shaped spindle.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Sep; 56(9):1135-41.JP
Drug release characteristics of two amoxicillin capsule products, 250 and 500 mg strength each, have been described using USP Paddle and crescent-shaped spindles. Using the same spindles, dissolution experiments were conducted with USP disintegrating (prednisone) and non-disintegrating (salicylic acid) calibrator tablets. Dissolution tests were conducted at 50 and 25 rev min(-1) using USP Paddle and crescent-shaped spindles, respectively. In all cases, even with the higher 50 rev min(-1), lower percent drug release results were observed with the Paddle spindle than with the crescent-shaped spindle, which was operated at 25 rev min(-1). The observed lower dissolution for amoxicillin capsule products (< 36 vs > 87% at 30 min) and USP prednisone calibrator tablets (45.5 vs 99.8% at 30 min) with Paddle spindles appeared to occur because of the accumulation of the disintegrated material (cone formation) at the bottom, thus restricting product-medium interaction. Crescent-shaped spindles did not allow any accumulation of the product and provided improved interaction by mixing and stirring, and thus appeared to provide true drug dissolution characteristics of the products. On the other hand, in the case of non-disintegrating USP salicylic acid tablets (18.5 vs 24.4% at 30 min), lower results with Paddle spindles appeared to be because of stagnation of the tablets, which provided poor product-medium interaction for the surface touching the vessel surface. In this case, the crescent-shaped spindles moved the tablets at the base of the vessel, providing improved and efficient product-medium interaction, thus appearing to reflect truer dissolution characteristics of the tablets. The results highlight the possible artifacts of the USP Paddle spindle, which could lead to inaccurate characterization of drug release properties of test products. As reported previously, the artifacts of high variability in results and lack of relevance to product properties appeared to be related to poor mixing and variable hydrodynamics within a dissolution vessel. Results from this study provide further evidence that these artifacts might be addressed adequately using the crescent-shaped spindle, thus resulting in improved drug release as well as better product characterization.