Effect of variation of trans-fatty acid in lactating rats' diet on lipoprotein lipase activity in mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue.Nutrition. 2004 Sep; 20(9):806-11.N
Lactation is associated with an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in the mammary gland (MG) and a decrease in adipose tissue because lactation redirects circulating substrates to the MG for milk synthesis. We investigated the effects of different dietary contents of trans-fatty acid (TFA) on LPL activity in maternal tissues and fatty acid composition in milk.
Lactating rats were fed semisynthetic isocaloric diets containing 7% soy oil (control), 7% partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (7%-PHVO), 5% PHVO plus 2% soy oil (5%-PHVO), or 3.5% PHVO plus 3.5% soy oil (3.5%-PHVO). On lactation day 14, animals were decapitated and MG, liver, and parametrial adipose tissue were extracted to determine total lipid contents, percentages of TFA, and LPL activity. Milk lipid composition was examined by gas chromatographic analysis of the gastric content of 14-d-old suckling pups.
Maternal consumption of TFA increased dietary TFA incorporation in MG and liver and decreased it in parametrial adipose tissue. Diets with higher trans concentrations (7%-PHVO) significantly increased lipid content in the MG, and all groups fed trans-based diets showed significant increases in LPL activity in the MG. Although LPL increased in the MG, milk of rats fed TFA-based diets had significant decreases in the percentage of essential fatty acids.
TFA intake during lactation alters maternal lipid metabolism and the percentage of essential fatty acids in milk; therefore, it is important to alert the population to avoid excessive intake of TFAs during lactation.