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Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults.
Circulation 2004; 110(10):1245-50Circ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mortality resulting from coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all causes in persons with diabetes and pre-existing CVD is high; however, these risks compared with those with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are unclear. We examined the impact of MetS on CHD, CVD, and overall mortality among US adults.

METHODS AND RESULTS

In a prospective cohort study, 6255 subjects 30 to 75 years of age (54% female) (representative of 64 million adults in the United States) from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were followed for a mean+/-SD of 13.3+/-3.8 years. MetS was defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. From sample-weighted multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression, compared with those with neither MetS nor prior CVD, age-, gender-, and risk factor-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD mortality were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.42 to 2.89) for those with MetS and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.04 to 5.79) for those with pre-existing CVD. For CVD mortality, HRs were 1.82 (95% CI, 1.40 to 2.37) and 3.14 (95% CI, 2.49 to 3.96), respectively; for overall mortality, HRs were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.66) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.60 to 2.17), respectively. In persons with MetS but without diabetes, risks of CHD and CVD mortality remained elevated. Diabetes predicted all mortality end points. Those with even 1 to 2 MetS risk factors were at increased risk for mortality from CHD and CVD. Moreover, MetS more strongly predicts CHD, CVD, and total mortality than its individual components.

CONCLUSIONS

CHD, CVD, and total mortality are significantly higher in US adults with than in those without MetS.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Heart Disease Prevention Program, University of California, Irvine 92697, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15326067

Citation

Malik, Shaista, et al. "Impact of the Metabolic Syndrome On Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and All Causes in United States Adults." Circulation, vol. 110, no. 10, 2004, pp. 1245-50.
Malik S, Wong ND, Franklin SS, et al. Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults. Circulation. 2004;110(10):1245-50.
Malik, S., Wong, N. D., Franklin, S. S., Kamath, T. V., L'Italien, G. J., Pio, J. R., & Williams, G. R. (2004). Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults. Circulation, 110(10), pp. 1245-50.
Malik S, et al. Impact of the Metabolic Syndrome On Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and All Causes in United States Adults. Circulation. 2004 Sep 7;110(10):1245-50. PubMed PMID: 15326067.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults. AU - Malik,Shaista, AU - Wong,Nathan D, AU - Franklin,Stanley S, AU - Kamath,Tripthi V, AU - L'Italien,Gilbert J, AU - Pio,Jose R, AU - Williams,G Rhys, Y1 - 2004/08/23/ PY - 2004/8/25/pubmed PY - 2006/4/8/medline PY - 2004/8/25/entrez SP - 1245 EP - 50 JF - Circulation JO - Circulation VL - 110 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Mortality resulting from coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all causes in persons with diabetes and pre-existing CVD is high; however, these risks compared with those with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are unclear. We examined the impact of MetS on CHD, CVD, and overall mortality among US adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort study, 6255 subjects 30 to 75 years of age (54% female) (representative of 64 million adults in the United States) from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were followed for a mean+/-SD of 13.3+/-3.8 years. MetS was defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. From sample-weighted multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression, compared with those with neither MetS nor prior CVD, age-, gender-, and risk factor-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD mortality were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.42 to 2.89) for those with MetS and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.04 to 5.79) for those with pre-existing CVD. For CVD mortality, HRs were 1.82 (95% CI, 1.40 to 2.37) and 3.14 (95% CI, 2.49 to 3.96), respectively; for overall mortality, HRs were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.66) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.60 to 2.17), respectively. In persons with MetS but without diabetes, risks of CHD and CVD mortality remained elevated. Diabetes predicted all mortality end points. Those with even 1 to 2 MetS risk factors were at increased risk for mortality from CHD and CVD. Moreover, MetS more strongly predicts CHD, CVD, and total mortality than its individual components. CONCLUSIONS: CHD, CVD, and total mortality are significantly higher in US adults with than in those without MetS. SN - 1524-4539 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15326067/Impact_of_the_metabolic_syndrome_on_mortality_from_coronary_heart_disease_cardiovascular_disease_and_all_causes_in_United_States_adults_ L2 - http://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.CIR.0000140677.20606.0E?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -