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Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I: effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free rhesus monkeys.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45(9):3234-43IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment (MP) and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys reared on xanthophyll-free diets to follow the accumulation of serum carotenoids and MP over time.

METHODS

Eighteen rhesus monkeys were fed xanthophyll-free semipurified diets from birth until 7 to 16 years. The diets of six were then supplemented with pure L and six with pure Z at 3.9 micromol/kg per day (2.2 mg/kg per day) for 24 to 56 weeks. At baseline and 4- to 12-week intervals during supplementation, serum carotenoids were measured by HPLC, and MP density was estimated by two-wavelength reflectometry. Serum carotenoids and MP were also measured in monkeys fed a stock diet.

RESULTS

Monkeys fed xanthophyll-free diets had no L or Z in serum and no detectable MP. During supplementation, serum L or Z increased rapidly over the first 4 weeks and from 16 weeks onward maintained similar levels, both several times higher than in stock-diet-fed monkeys. The central peak of MP optical density increased to a relatively steady level by 24 to 32 weeks in both L- and Z-fed groups. Rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet had lower blood concentrations of L than those found in humans and other nonhuman primates.

CONCLUSIONS

Rhesus monkeys respond to either dietary L or Z supplementation with increases in serum xanthophylls and MP, even after life-long xanthophyll deficiency. These animals provide a potential model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portalnd 97006, neuringe@ohsu.edu.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15326146

Citation

Neuringer, Martha, et al. "Nutritional Manipulation of Primate Retinas, I: Effects of Lutein or Zeaxanthin Supplements On Serum and Macular Pigment in Xanthophyll-free Rhesus Monkeys." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 45, no. 9, 2004, pp. 3234-43.
Neuringer M, Sandstrom MM, Johnson EJ, et al. Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I: effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free rhesus monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45(9):3234-43.
Neuringer, M., Sandstrom, M. M., Johnson, E. J., & Snodderly, D. M. (2004). Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I: effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free rhesus monkeys. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 45(9), pp. 3234-43.
Neuringer M, et al. Nutritional Manipulation of Primate Retinas, I: Effects of Lutein or Zeaxanthin Supplements On Serum and Macular Pigment in Xanthophyll-free Rhesus Monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45(9):3234-43. PubMed PMID: 15326146.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I: effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free rhesus monkeys. AU - Neuringer,Martha, AU - Sandstrom,Marita M, AU - Johnson,Elizabeth J, AU - Snodderly,D Max, PY - 2004/8/25/pubmed PY - 2004/10/8/medline PY - 2004/8/25/entrez SP - 3234 EP - 43 JF - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science JO - Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. VL - 45 IS - 9 N2 - PURPOSE: The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment (MP) and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys reared on xanthophyll-free diets to follow the accumulation of serum carotenoids and MP over time. METHODS: Eighteen rhesus monkeys were fed xanthophyll-free semipurified diets from birth until 7 to 16 years. The diets of six were then supplemented with pure L and six with pure Z at 3.9 micromol/kg per day (2.2 mg/kg per day) for 24 to 56 weeks. At baseline and 4- to 12-week intervals during supplementation, serum carotenoids were measured by HPLC, and MP density was estimated by two-wavelength reflectometry. Serum carotenoids and MP were also measured in monkeys fed a stock diet. RESULTS: Monkeys fed xanthophyll-free diets had no L or Z in serum and no detectable MP. During supplementation, serum L or Z increased rapidly over the first 4 weeks and from 16 weeks onward maintained similar levels, both several times higher than in stock-diet-fed monkeys. The central peak of MP optical density increased to a relatively steady level by 24 to 32 weeks in both L- and Z-fed groups. Rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet had lower blood concentrations of L than those found in humans and other nonhuman primates. CONCLUSIONS: Rhesus monkeys respond to either dietary L or Z supplementation with increases in serum xanthophylls and MP, even after life-long xanthophyll deficiency. These animals provide a potential model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD. SN - 0146-0404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15326146/Nutritional_manipulation_of_primate_retinas_I:_effects_of_lutein_or_zeaxanthin_supplements_on_serum_and_macular_pigment_in_xanthophyll_free_rhesus_monkeys_ L2 - http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/iovs.02-1243 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -