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Estimation of safe exposure time from an ophthalmic operating microscope with regard to ultraviolet radiation and blue-light hazards to the eye.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2004; 21(8):1388-92JO

Abstract

Hazards from the optical radiation of an operating microscope that cause damage at the corneal, lenticular, and retinal levels were investigated; we considered, in particular, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and blue light. The spectral irradiance from a Zeiss operation microscope OPMI VISU 200 was measured in the corneal plane between 300 and 1100 nm. Effective irradiance and radiance were calculated with relative spectral effectiveness data from the American Conference for Governmental and Industrial Hygienists. Safe exposure time to avoid UVR injury to the lens and cornea was found to be 2 h without a filter, 4 h with a UVR filter, 200 a yellow filter, and 400 h with a filter combination. Safe exposure time to avoid retinal photochemical injury was found to be 3 min without a filter and with a UVR filter, 10 min with a yellow filter, and 49 min with a filter combination. The effective radiance limit for retinal thermal injury was not exceeded. The hazard due to the UVR component from the operating microscope is not critical, and operation time can be safely prolonged with the use of appropriate filters. The retinal photochemical hazard appears critical without appropriate filters, permitting only some minutes of safe exposure time. The calculated safe exposure times are for worst-case conditions and maximal light output and include a safety factor.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institut Universitari Barraquer, Laforja 88, 08021 Barcelona, Spain. ralph.michael@web.deNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15330464

Citation

Michael, Ralph, and Alfred Wegener. "Estimation of Safe Exposure Time From an Ophthalmic Operating Microscope With Regard to Ultraviolet Radiation and Blue-light Hazards to the Eye." Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision, vol. 21, no. 8, 2004, pp. 1388-92.
Michael R, Wegener A. Estimation of safe exposure time from an ophthalmic operating microscope with regard to ultraviolet radiation and blue-light hazards to the eye. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2004;21(8):1388-92.
Michael, R., & Wegener, A. (2004). Estimation of safe exposure time from an ophthalmic operating microscope with regard to ultraviolet radiation and blue-light hazards to the eye. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision, 21(8), pp. 1388-92.
Michael R, Wegener A. Estimation of Safe Exposure Time From an Ophthalmic Operating Microscope With Regard to Ultraviolet Radiation and Blue-light Hazards to the Eye. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2004;21(8):1388-92. PubMed PMID: 15330464.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimation of safe exposure time from an ophthalmic operating microscope with regard to ultraviolet radiation and blue-light hazards to the eye. AU - Michael,Ralph, AU - Wegener,Alfred, PY - 2004/8/28/pubmed PY - 2004/10/13/medline PY - 2004/8/28/entrez SP - 1388 EP - 92 JF - Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision JO - J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis VL - 21 IS - 8 N2 - Hazards from the optical radiation of an operating microscope that cause damage at the corneal, lenticular, and retinal levels were investigated; we considered, in particular, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and blue light. The spectral irradiance from a Zeiss operation microscope OPMI VISU 200 was measured in the corneal plane between 300 and 1100 nm. Effective irradiance and radiance were calculated with relative spectral effectiveness data from the American Conference for Governmental and Industrial Hygienists. Safe exposure time to avoid UVR injury to the lens and cornea was found to be 2 h without a filter, 4 h with a UVR filter, 200 a yellow filter, and 400 h with a filter combination. Safe exposure time to avoid retinal photochemical injury was found to be 3 min without a filter and with a UVR filter, 10 min with a yellow filter, and 49 min with a filter combination. The effective radiance limit for retinal thermal injury was not exceeded. The hazard due to the UVR component from the operating microscope is not critical, and operation time can be safely prolonged with the use of appropriate filters. The retinal photochemical hazard appears critical without appropriate filters, permitting only some minutes of safe exposure time. The calculated safe exposure times are for worst-case conditions and maximal light output and include a safety factor. SN - 1084-7529 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15330464/Estimation_of_safe_exposure_time_from_an_ophthalmic_operating_microscope_with_regard_to_ultraviolet_radiation_and_blue_light_hazards_to_the_eye_ L2 - http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-21-8-1388 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -