Effects of mono-, di-, and triamines on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex: a model of the polyamine recognition site.Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Apr; 41(4):785-92.MP
Systematic series of monoamines, diamines, and triamines were used to define the structural requirements for interaction at the polyamine recognition site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. Effects of amines on binding of [3H]MK-801 to washed synaptic plasma membranes were measured in the presence of L-glutamate and glycine (100 microM each), in the absence or presence of spermine (10 microM). Linear aliphatic monoamines of methylene chain length up to 12 (dodecylamine) did not interact with the polyamine recognition site. Nonspecific inhibition of binding was observed at high concentrations of the longer monoamines. alpha,omega-Diamines of methylene chain length 2 (1,2-diaminoethane, DA2) through 12 (1,12-diaminododecane, DA12) had varying actions, depending on chain length. The shortest diamines (DA2 and DA3) acted as weak partial agonists, enhancing the binding of [3H[MK-801. Intermediate-length diamines (DA4-DA7) were selective polyamine antagonists, having little or no effect on binding of [3H]MK-801 measured in the absence of spermine but inhibiting binding measured in the presence of spermine. The longest diamines tested (DA8-DA12) acted as inverse agonists; they inhibited binding in the absence or presence of spermine, and this inhibition was blocked by the selective polyamine antagonist diethylenetriamine. Computer modeling of conformations of the diamines quantitatively documented that 1) these molecules are flexible and 2) long diamines may easily adopt conformations with inter-nitrogen distances mimicking those of short diamines. The cis and trans isomers of 1,4-diaminocyclohexane are inflexible, conformationally restricted diamines with markedly different actions. The cis isomer was a partial agonist and the trans isomer was an antagonist at the polyamine recognition site. Triamines of general structure NH2(CH2)3NH(CH2)xNH2 (TRI[3,x]), in which x = 3-12, were synthesized and tested for activity at the polyamine recognition site. Despite the large range of size, TRI[3,3] through TRI[3,9] were all fully polyamine agonists of similar potency. TRI[3,10] was a partial agonist, whereas TRI[3,12] inhibited binding of [3H]MK-801. Diethylenetriamine did not attenuate the effect of TRI[3,12]. Based on the results of the radioligand binding studies and the computer analysis, a model of the polyamine recognition site is proposed.