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Neural mechanisms of working memory in ecstasy (MDMA) users who continue or discontinue ecstasy and amphetamine use: evidence from an 18-month longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Sep 01; 56(5):349-55.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Working memory processing in ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users is associated with neural alterations as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we examined whether cortical activation patterns change after prolonged periods of continued use or abstinence from ecstasy and amphetamine.

METHODS

We used an n-back task and functional magnetic resonance imaging in 17 ecstasy users at baseline (t(1)) and after 18 months (t(2)). Based on the reported drug use at t(2) we separated subjects with continued ecstasy and amphetamine use from subjects reporting abstinence during the follow-up period (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively).

RESULTS

At baseline both groups had similar task performance and similar cortical activation patterns. Task performance remained unchanged in both groups. Furthermore, there were no detectable functional magnetic resonance imaging signal changes from t(1) to t(2) in the follow-up abstinent group. However, the continuing users showed a dose-dependent increased parietal activation for the 2-back task after the follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS

Our data suggest that ecstasy use, particularly in high doses, is associated with greater parietal activation during working memory performance. An altered activation pattern might appear before changes in cognitive performance become apparent and, hence, may reflect an early stage of neuronal injury from the neurotoxic drug ecstasy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15336517

Citation

Daumann, Jörg, et al. "Neural Mechanisms of Working Memory in Ecstasy (MDMA) Users Who Continue or Discontinue Ecstasy and Amphetamine Use: Evidence From an 18-month Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study." Biological Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 5, 2004, pp. 349-55.
Daumann J, Fischermann T, Heekeren K, et al. Neural mechanisms of working memory in ecstasy (MDMA) users who continue or discontinue ecstasy and amphetamine use: evidence from an 18-month longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56(5):349-55.
Daumann, J., Fischermann, T., Heekeren, K., Thron, A., & Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E. (2004). Neural mechanisms of working memory in ecstasy (MDMA) users who continue or discontinue ecstasy and amphetamine use: evidence from an 18-month longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 56(5), 349-55.
Daumann J, et al. Neural Mechanisms of Working Memory in Ecstasy (MDMA) Users Who Continue or Discontinue Ecstasy and Amphetamine Use: Evidence From an 18-month Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Sep 1;56(5):349-55. PubMed PMID: 15336517.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neural mechanisms of working memory in ecstasy (MDMA) users who continue or discontinue ecstasy and amphetamine use: evidence from an 18-month longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study. AU - Daumann,Jörg,Jr AU - Fischermann,Thomas, AU - Heekeren,Karsten, AU - Thron,Armin, AU - Gouzoulis-Mayfrank,Euphrosyne, PY - 2004/02/05/received PY - 2004/05/13/revised PY - 2004/06/07/accepted PY - 2004/9/1/pubmed PY - 2004/10/1/medline PY - 2004/9/1/entrez SP - 349 EP - 55 JF - Biological psychiatry JO - Biol. Psychiatry VL - 56 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Working memory processing in ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users is associated with neural alterations as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we examined whether cortical activation patterns change after prolonged periods of continued use or abstinence from ecstasy and amphetamine. METHODS: We used an n-back task and functional magnetic resonance imaging in 17 ecstasy users at baseline (t(1)) and after 18 months (t(2)). Based on the reported drug use at t(2) we separated subjects with continued ecstasy and amphetamine use from subjects reporting abstinence during the follow-up period (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively). RESULTS: At baseline both groups had similar task performance and similar cortical activation patterns. Task performance remained unchanged in both groups. Furthermore, there were no detectable functional magnetic resonance imaging signal changes from t(1) to t(2) in the follow-up abstinent group. However, the continuing users showed a dose-dependent increased parietal activation for the 2-back task after the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that ecstasy use, particularly in high doses, is associated with greater parietal activation during working memory performance. An altered activation pattern might appear before changes in cognitive performance become apparent and, hence, may reflect an early stage of neuronal injury from the neurotoxic drug ecstasy. SN - 0006-3223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15336517/Neural_mechanisms_of_working_memory_in_ecstasy__MDMA__users_who_continue_or_discontinue_ecstasy_and_amphetamine_use:_evidence_from_an_18_month_longitudinal_functional_magnetic_resonance_imaging_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006-3223(04)00676-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -