Fluid-regulating hormones during exercise when central blood volume is increased by water immersion.Am J Physiol. 1992 May; 262(5 Pt 2):R779-85.AJ
To examine the influence of an increase in central blood volume with head-out water immersion (WI) on fluid-regulating hormones during exercise, 10 healthy men underwent upright leg cycle exercise on land and with WI. Venous plasma renin activity and plasma venous concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma aldosterone, and arginine vasopressin were determined at exercise intensities corresponding to approximately 40, 60, 80, and 100% peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and at minutes 1 and 5 of seated rest recovery within each environment. Peak VO2 did not differ on land and with WI. Atrial natriuretic peptide concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) and plasma renin activity was lower (P less than 0.05) in water than on land at 40% peak VO2 through minute 5 of recovery. Plasma aldosterone and arginine vasopressin concentrations were lower (P less than 0.05) in water at peak exercise and at minutes 1 and 5 of recovery. Osmolality and plasma sodium and potassium concentrations during exercise were similar in water and on land. The results indicate that WI alters the circulating levels of several hormones involved in fluid and electrolyte regulation during exercise. These hormonal alterations can best be explained by stimulation of low-pressure baroreceptors and atrial stretch due to increased central blood volume with head-out WI.