Enhancement of the efficacy of chemotherapy for lung cancer by simultaneous suppression of multidrug resistance and antiapoptotic cellular defense: novel multicomponent delivery system.Cancer Res. 2004 Sep 01; 64(17):6214-24.CR
The efficacy of chemotherapy of lung cancer is limited by the development of resistance in cancer cells during treatment. In most lung cancers, this resistance is associated with the overexpression of (a) multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) responsible for drug efflux from the cancer cells (pump resistance) and (b) BCL2 protein that activates antiapoptotic cellular defense (nonpump resistance). A novel liposomal proapoptotic anticancer drug delivery system was developed to enhance anticancer efficacy of the well-established drug doxorubicin (DOX). This multicomponent drug delivery system was tested on multidrug-sensitive and -resistant human small-cell lung cancer cells. The drug delivery system includes four components: (a) liposome as a carrier, (b) DOX as an inductor of apoptosis, (c) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeted to MRP1 mRNA as a suppressor of pump resistance, and (d) ASOs targeted to BCL2 mRNA as a suppressor of nonpump resistance. Intracellular internalization of ASOs and DOX; the influence of the proposed system on the expression of genes and proteins involved in the multidrug resistance, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induction and antiapoptotic defense; and the activity of caspases were studied. It was found that the proposed liposomal delivery system successfully delivered ASOs and DOX to cell nuclei, inhibited MRP1 and BCL2 protein synthesis, and substantially increased the anticancer action of DOX by stimulating the caspase-dependent pathway of apoptosis in multidrug-resistant human lung cancer cells.