Endovascular strategies for carotid cavernous and intracerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas.Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Oct 15; 15(4):ECP1.NF
Interventional neuroradiology is a less invasive modality than open neurosurgery for the treatment of a wide range of neurovascular disorders. Refinements in technique and improvements in the design of microcatheters, guide wires, and embolic materials have yielded superior clinical outcomes and provided an impetus to treat more of these lesions endovascularly rather than surgically. Endovascular therapy is the standard of care for direct and indirect carotid artery cavernous sinus fistulas and may also be curative for dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in other locations. The authors provide review of the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of intracranial AVFs focusing on contemporary endovascular treatment options.