Liver delivery of NO by NCX-1000 protects against acute liver failure and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by APAP in mice.Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Sep; 143(1):33-42.BJ
1. NCX-1000, (3alpha, 5beta, 7beta)-3,7-dihydroxycholan-24oic acid[2-methoxy-4-[3-[4-(nitroxy)butoxy]-3-oxo-1-propenyl]phenyl ester, is a nitric oxide (NO)-derivative of ursodeoxyxholic acid (UDCA) that selectively release NO in the liver. 2. Here, we demonstrated that administering mice with 40 micromol kg(-1) NCX-1000, but not UDCA, improves liver histopathology and reduces mortality caused by 330 micromol kg(-1) APAP from 60 to 25% (P<0.01). Administration of NCX-1000, in a therapeutic manner, that is, 2 h after acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication reduced mortality, improved liver histopathology and prevented liver IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, Fas/Fas ligand and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA accumulation caused by APAP. 3. In vitro exposure of primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes to APAP, 6.6 mm, resulted in apoptosis followed by necrosis. Loss of cell viability correlates with early mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) hyperpolarization followed by depolarization and cytochrome c translocation from mitochondria to cytosol. APAP-induced apoptosis associated with procaspase-3 and -9 cleavage, appearance of truncated Bid and activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). 4. Treating primary culture of hepatocytes with 5 microm cyclosporine and 10 microm trifluoperazine for eight resulted in significant reduction of apoptosis induced by APAP suggesting that loss of Deltapsim was mechanistically involved in apoptosis induced by APAP in vitro. 5. NCX-1000, but not UDCA, concentration-dependently (ED(50)=16 microm) protected against Deltapsi(m) depolarization and reduced transition from apoptosis to necrosis caused by 6.6 mm APAP. 6. Treating primary cultures of hepatocytes with the NO-donor DETA-NO, 100 microm, reduced apoptosis induced by APAP and prevented caspase activation. 7. In conclusion, NCX-1000 is effective in protecting against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity when administered in a therapeutic manner. This protection may involve the inhibition of apoptosis and the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity.