A new approach to evaluating the toxicity and genotoxicity of disinfected drinking water.Water Res. 2004 Oct; 38(17):3809-19.WR
The aim of this study was to evaluate the formation of toxic and genotoxic compounds in surface drinking waters treated with two widely used disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), and a new disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA). For this purpose a pilot plant was set up to add these biocides continuously to pre-filtered lake water flowing into three different basins. During three seasonal experiments, short-term in vivo tests (with plant, fish and molluscs) and in vitro tests (with bacteria, yeast and human cells) were carried out to evaluate the formation of genotoxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify DBPs produced during the different treatments, microbiological analyses were performed to test the biocidal activity of the disinfectants, and chemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the quality of the water. The pilot drinking water plant under study was useful in studying the toxicity and genotoxicity of disinfected drinking water with this combined chemical/biotoxicological approach. This paper describes the setting up of the pilot plant and sets out/reports the results of the microbiological and chemical analyses.