Prostate-specific antigen, sex steroid hormones, and the insulin-like growth factor axis in U.S.-born, Jamaican, and Haitian black men: a pilot study.Urology. 2004 Sep; 64(3):522-7.U
African-Caribbean men have a risk of prostate cancer comparable to that of African-American men. To begin exploring potential risk factors for prostate cancer in these high-risk black subgroups, we conducted a pilot study in Brooklyn, New York, a community with large numbers of African-Americans and immigrants from Jamaica and Haiti.
Black men, 35 to 65 years of age, who were born in the United States, Jamaica, or Haiti were recruited in Brooklyn. The subjects' serum samples were analyzed for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the following hormones, which may be related to prostate cancer: testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Subgroup differences in PSA and hormonal levels, adjusted for relevant covariates, were explored using analysis of variance techniques.
For 3 months, we recruited 21 U.S.-born, 20 Jamaican-born, and 24 Haitian-born black men using various methods. The mean age-adjusted PSA level was 1.04 ng/mL in the U.S.-born men, 1.09 ng/mL in the Jamaican-born men, and 0.85 ng/mL in the Haitian-born men (P = 0.55). The mean age-adjusted hormone levels, as well as testosterone/sex hormone-binding globulin and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratios, also were not significantly different statistically across the subgroups.
It is feasible to conduct epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer in these high-risk black subgroups in Brooklyn. Our preliminary data suggest that the serum levels of PSA and potential hormonal risk factors are similar among U.S.-born, Jamaican-born, and Haitian-born black men. Larger follow-up studies are being planned to confirm these findings.